Bird Families

Observations of wintering flocks of Aegithalos caudatus in the Leningrad Region

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Botanical name: Dolichothele.

Currently, dolichotele is included in the genus Mammillaria, but it has its own unique appearance, and therefore deserves a separate description.

Family ... Cactus.

Dolichotele cactus - origin ... Mexico.

Description. Dolichotele is a small and very attractive plant. Dolichotele stems have thin tubercles up to 7 cm high with very long curved spines at the top, which completely cover the plant. Flowers with a diameter of 5 - 6 cm, bell-shaped, with long petals of yellow, orange or white, greenish outside, have a faint aroma. This cactus has a fairly large root system. Sometimes, with age, this cactus forms several stems up to 10 cm in diameter.

Height ... Up to 15 cm.

1.1 Temperature conditions

The optimum temperature for keeping dolichotele is 22 - 24 ° C. Dolichotele tolerates short-term frosts down to -5 ° C if it is kept in sufficiently dry soil. This cactus needs a rest period in winter at 8-10 ° C and good lighting for flowering.

1.2 Lighting

Several hours of direct sunlight daily in the morning or evening hours. Light shading during the day is necessary for a dolichoteler in order to avoid sunburn. In good light, the stems of the plant can take on a reddish tint, while in plants grown in partial shade, it has an unhealthy pale green appearance.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "Observations of the wintering flocks of Aegithalos caudatus in the Leningrad Region"

Russian Ornithological Journal 2000, Express issue 111: 3-18

Observations of wintering flocks of Aegithalos caudatus in the Leningrad Region

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia

Received October 10, 1998

Mixed tit flocks are a characteristic feature of the Holarctic boreal forests. Throughout the non-breeding season, from July to April, tits are usually found in flocks of 3-20 individuals, rarely more. These associations can consist of individuals of the same or different species. In European forests, mixed flocks most often include the tits of the genus Parus, kinglets Regulus regulus, pikas Certhia familiaris, nuthatches Sitia europaea, and long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus. In the taiga, the core of such groups is most often formed by the puffs of Parus montanus. Following A.A. Gerke (1932) and V.M. Polivanov (1971), the listed species are referred to the main members of mixed tit flocks. Other birds often join mixed flocks, but their participation in these associations is optional. A.A. Gerke calls these species concomitant. In the second half of summer and early autumn, flocks of tits are often joined by various warblers of Phylloscopus, Sylvia warblers, mocking Hippolais icterina, chaffinches Fringilla coelebs, gray flycatchers Muscícapa striata, forest pipits Anthus trivialis. In the Far Eastern taiga, blue buntings (subgenus Osu ris) like to join the flocks, most often the gray-headed Emberiza (Ocuris) spodocephala, which occupies an ecological niche here, similar to the niche of the finch in European forests (Bardin 1989). Less often, other passerines can be found together with titmouses. Among non-passerine birds, woodpeckers tend to stick together with titmouses, primarily Dendrocopos minor, Yungipicus ki-zuki and D. leucotos, less often D. major and Picoides tridactylus.

Mixed tit flocks have long attracted the attention of bird watchers. In numerous works, the main attention was paid to their species composition, its seasonal variability, biotopic distribution, and segregation of feeding sites in different species. The question of the adaptive value of flocking was constantly raised. Starting with N.P. Naumov (1923) and A.A. Gerke (1932), the advantages of associations of small insectivorous birds were seen, firstly, in better protection from predators (many eyes will notice its approach faster), and secondly, in increasing the efficiency of foraging (collective search for feeding places, catching invertebrates frightened by other individuals). The question of the social structure of groups was not raised at all in early studies. It was believed that after the chicks left the nests, family groups move on to a nomadic life and,

uniting, they form mixed flocks, representing, as was believed, continuously nomadic and unstable in their composition groupings that do not have a definite social structure.

With the introduction of the methods of individual marking of birds into the practice of field research, the concepts of the territorial behavior of tits and nuthatches have changed dramatically. Already the first works on ringing revealed the strict settledness of adults of the species under consideration (Vilke, Vilke 1961, Vilke 1966, Noskov 1968, Bardin 1975a, b, c, 1981, 1983a, b 1988). Long-term observations of individually tagged individuals (the so-called biographical method) have shown that these birds form permanent pairs that remain until the death of one of the partners, and spend their entire life in relatively small habitats (about 10 hectares in the Pskov and Leningrad regions), preventing the reproduction of other conspecific individuals within their limits.

Another important point, discovered using the biographical method, is that, contrary to the opinion widespread in those years, flocks of tits of the genus Parus do not represent family groups (Bardin 1970, 1982). It turned out that in titmice, as well as nuthatches and pikas, after the young acquire independence, the broods necessarily disintegrate. Young birds leave the territory of their parents one by one and settle. The dispersal phase is a mandatory stage of ontogenesis for each of these sedentary birds in the adult state (Malchevsky 1957, 1969, Noskov 1968, Bardin 1970, 19756, 1981, 1983a, b, 1986, Weise, Meyer 1979, Nüsson, Smith 1985, 1988 , Nüsson 1989). In the process of settling in the place of young birds that left their native territories, new ones appear, born in other places. They join pairs of sedentary adults, so if the birds are not tagged, the impression remains that old birds that have finished breeding continue to keep together with their grown chicks. The settlement period is confined to a certain age (40-50 days in different species) and does not last long, no more than 10 days (Bardin 19756, Bardin, Markovets, Mikhailov 1992, Weise, Meyer 1979, Nüsson, Smith 1985, 1988).

After dispersion, the young settle in the territories where they will spend autumn and winter, and possibly their entire life. The transition to settled life after settling is associated with the formation of pairs between young birds and their settlement in the territories of adult pairs or in free areas. This is how social groups are formed - phratries, which maintain a constant composition throughout late summer, autumn and winter. A small part of the young - the so-called. wandering individuals - although they are sedentary, they lead a freer way of life, without being part of any specific territorial groupings (see reviews: Ekman 1989, Hogstad 1989).

For interspecific territorial relations of species - the main members of mixed tit flocks, the combination of the habitats of phratries of different species is characteristic. As a result, communities of sedentary birds of several species are formed, united by a common habitat and retaining constancy throughout the entire non-nesting period - the so-called. federation (Bardin 1975b, 1982, 19836, Ekman 1979,

Justice 1987). Federation members spend most of the daytime together, forming territorial mixed flocks (Bardin 1970). Members of one federation do not mix with members of neighboring ones and usually do not enter their territory, preventing, in turn, neighbors from using their habitat. Each territorial mixed flock (federation) is constant in the sense that it is formed every day from the same individuals constantly living in the same area of ​​the forest. However, such a flock is at the same time unstable, since its constituent individuals exhibit a certain independence in their behavior and do not form a "overindividual flock" in the terminology of K. Lorentz. A mixed flock breaks up in the evening and gathers again in the morning, while its members can keep singly, in pairs, several flocks or a common flock, depending on specific conditions. This is a community of ecologically similar species, united by a common territory and using a common information system. The latter is of great importance, since many vital local behavioral traits of individuals of these species are transmitted to new members of federations from old ones through signal (cultural) heredity - the size of the territory, its boundaries, ways of using local sources of food, recognizing enemies, etc.

The boreal forests of the Palaearctic are inhabited by one polytypic species of wild cattle, Aegithalos caudatus *. Traditionally, it is considered to be the main member of mixed tit flocks. However, his social behavior differs significantly from the well-studied behavior of real tits, nuthatches, pikas and beetles, which has been pointed out for a long time (Dubrovsky 1958). True, the ecology of the white-breasted bird is still much less studied than that of real tits, moreover, with a large number

At present, the creepers are isolated into a separate family Aegithalidae. In the system of C.G. Sibley and J.E. Ahlquist (1990), it belongs to the superfamily Sylvioidea of ​​the Passerida parvo row. According to the latest summary (Naggar and Quinn 1996), Aegithalidae includes 8 species combined into 3 genera: Aegithalos with 6 species and monotypic Psaltriparus and Psaltria. 1) Aegithalos caudatus - widespread in Eurasia, 19 subspecies, combined into 4 groups: caudatus group (northern Eurasia) - caudatus, europaeus group (southern and western Europe, northeastern China, Korea Japan) - rosaceus, aremoricus, taiti , europaeus, macedonicus, tauricus, magnus, trivirgatus, kiusi-uensis, alpinus group (Mediterranean, southwestern Asia) - irbii, italiae, siculus, tephronotus, major, alpinus, passekii, glaucogularis group (China), glaucogularis.

2) Barnacle Opolovnik'5, A. leucogenys - northeastern Afghanistan and north

western India. 3) Painted crayfish * A. concinnus (6 subspecies) - Himalayas, Ki-

Thai, Burma, Indochina. 4) White-chinned A. niveogularis - Western Himalayas.

5) Black-browed Opolovnik * A. iouschistos (4 subspecies) - eastern Himalayas and western China. 6) Collar strap'5, A. fuliginosus - central China. 7) Shrub tit Psaltriparus minimus (11 subspecies, P. melanotis has long been considered a separate species) - the western part of North America from British Columbia to Mexico and Guatemala. 8) Psalt Psaltria exilis - Java Island (considered the smallest passerine bird: wing length 40-49 mm, no data on body weight). Note: the sign (*) marks the Russian names of species proposed by us, which differ from those formally assigned to them in the Dictionary of Animal Names (Boehme, Flint 1994).

subspecies (19) and such a vast area, a certain variety can be expected in the way of life. The most detailed population studies have been carried out on subspecies A. s. rosaceus in England (Gaston 1973, Glen, Perrins 1988) and A. c. trivirgatus in Japan (Nakamura 1967, 1969, 1972). Yu.B. Shibnev (1975) studied A. p. caudatus in Primorye.

In the out-of-nesting time, the main structural unit of the population is the flock, which, in contrast to the tits of the genus Parus, is a family group, i.e. a parental pair and a brood of their chicks not breaking up until next spring. The flock may also include the so-called. helpers related to the male of the parental pair and helping the main pair to feed the brood. The flock is constant throughout the entire non-breeding period, and changes in its composition are associated only with the death of some of the birds in autumn and winter. Each flock of mugs occupies a certain territory and does not mix with neighboring flocks. Unlike the tits of the genus Parus, the moths are very social and constantly live in a flock. If titmice spend the night alone in hollows and other shelters, then for mongrels, public nights are typical, when members of the flock sleep huddled together (see: Cramp, Perrins 1993).

Judging by all the available data, the crimson birds are almost exclusively insectivorous *, while in the winter diet of the tits of the genus Parus, seeds (especially pine, spruce, fir, larch, beech and other forest-forming species) are of great importance, which they store in large quantities.

When working with opolovniki, one cannot but pay attention to the bright coloration of their eyelids, which form a ring around the eye, wider on top. The color of the eyelid skin varies from bright red through orange to yellow. Determination of age or sex on this basis is considered impossible (Vinogradova et al. 1976). Nevertheless, some dependence on age still takes place: in juvenile juveniles, they are colored bright red; in adult breeding individuals, they are usually yellow (Axton 1972). A special study of this feature on A. p. rosaceus in England (Greig-Smith 1984) showed that the color of the eyelids in one individual can change rapidly, for example, in the time interval between the capture of a bird and its ringing. In this case, the color of the eyelids depends on the body weight, the number of individuals in the social group. It was concluded that against the background of age and seasonal trends in the change in the color of the periobital ring reflects the momentary physiological and mental state of the individual. It is possible that this feature has a signaling value during social relationships of mugs.

Winter ecology of the white-headed subspecies A. s. In the north-west of Russia, which inhabits the white-headed subspecies. caudatus is practically not studied. Therefore, when observing mixed tit flocks in the Leningrad region. I paid the main attention to the winter flocks of mongrels.

* In spring, however, opolovniki willingly drink maple and birch sap (Panov 1973, Shib-nev 1975, A.V. Bardin, oral communication). In winter, a small amount of seeds, most often birch and alder, were found in their stomachs (Inozemtsev 1965).

Study area, material and method

Observations were carried out in November-February 1995-1997 in the Vsevolozhsk district of the Leningrad region. in the vicinity of the village. Voeikovo. The study site is located in a mixed forest area on a hilly moraine plain. The forest stand is dominated by Pine sylvestris, birch Betula pendula et B. pubescens, aspen Populus trémula, gray alder Alnus incana, oak Quercus robur, in the undergrowth - birch, Sorbus aucuparia, gray alder, willows Salix spp., Grassy longline forbs. Plots of pine-birch forest are interspersed with glades, in some places there are moss bogs. Constant observations were carried out on an area of ​​120 hectares. In winter, 3 or 4 flocks of mongrels kept here. The most detailed observations were carried out annually for one flock. After finding the flock, the observer followed it, plotting the path of the birds on a detailed plan of the terrain and timing their behavior and a number of parameters of feeding and motor activity (movement speed, number of surveyed trees, time spent on one tree, types of trees used, feeding places). The total observation time was 150 hours. During special excursions, all the titmouse flocks encountered were also noted, as far as possible establishing their species and quantitative composition. Individual flocks were observed for 10 and 15 minutes, 1 hour or more. The distance traveled by the flock was measured for every 10 min. A total of 126 mixed blue-draw flocks were observed, 38 of which were attended by militiamen.

Results and discussion Composition of mixed tit flocks

Parus montanus, P. ater, P. caeruleus, P. major, Aegithalos caudatus, Regulus regulus, and Certhia familiaris were found on the study site in the composition of mixed tit flocks (Table 1). The most numerous was the powder. In winter, it predominated in flocks of titmice. The second place in occurrence was occupied by the whitefish and the great tit. However, in winter, great tits mostly stayed in the village and around, and in the forest they were found in a single number. Moscow was generally rare. During the observation period, pairs of these birds were encountered only 4 times: 2 times in mixed flocks, 2 times separately. The blue tit was also rare in winter, although it is quite common in the autumn migration. The yellow-headed beetle and pika can be considered common members of the titmouse associations.

Flocks can be divided into monospecific, i.e. consisting of individuals of the same species, and mixed, formed by birds of several species. In the latter case, the core of the flock consists of individuals of one, less often two, dominant species. In the study area, the core was most often formed

Table 1. Composition of blue tit flocks in the autumn-winter period,

% of encounters from the total number of recorded flocks (n - 126)

Type Number of meetings

Aegithalos caudatus 38 30

Parus montanus 54 43

Parus major 16 13

Parus caeruleus 5 4

Regulus regulus 56 44

Certhia familiaris 21 17

powders (2-6 individuals). When militiamen were present in mixed flocks, they played the role of the nucleus consolidating the grouping. However, in half of the cases, they kept their own flocks. In general, the impression was created that it is not the mongrels who seek to join mixed communities, but, on the contrary, that birds of other species accompany the friendly flocks of the mongrels while the latter are within their habitats. Other authors also write about this (Naumov 1923, Dubrovsky 1958, Zonov 1969, Polivanov 1971).

On the observation site with an area of ​​120 hectares in the winter of 1995/1996, there were 3 flocks of mongrels, consisting of 5, 8 and 11 individuals. In 1996/1997, 4 flocks of 5, 7, 9 and 12 birds spent the winter here. Thus, the size of winter flocks of opolovniki varied from 5 to 12 individuals, averaging 8.1 individuals. For the Moscow region in the literature, the following data on the size of winter flocks of mongrels are given: from 5 to 15, on average 10 individuals (Naumov 1923), on average 12 (Dubrovsky 1958), for England - 6.3 individuals (Morse 1978), 10.6 (from 6 to 17) and 8.8 (from 6 to 14) individuals in two consecutive winter seasons (Glen and Perrins 1988). In the valley of the river. The Inn (right tributary of the Danube) winter flocks of mongrels consisted of 4-16, an average of 9.4 individuals (Riehm 1970). In Primorye, the number of mongrels in winter flocks ranged from 5 to 14 (Shibnev 1975), in Japan - from 3 to 11 (Nakamura 1969). During the autumn migration, the flocks fly about the same size in flocks, and the constancy of the flock composition is maintained even when moving long distances (Rezvy 1976, 1995). The constancy of migratory social groups noted by many authors, as well as direct evidence obtained using ringing, suggest that migratory flocks of mongrels also consist of siblings (Cramp, Perrins 1993, Harrap, Quinn 1996). As shown by long-term observations of the autumn migration of these birds on the lake. Venern (Sweden), most migratory flocks consisted of 6-17, with an average of 10.4 individuals (Ehrenroth 1976). P. Linkola (1961) gives similar estimates (5-16 individuals) for the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. During the passage, one can also observe larger congestions of mugwort, but they, apparently, represent temporary associations formed from permanent social groups.

The size of the winter territory of the flock of mugs

Whereas in Western Europe, mongrels are considered sedentary, in Northern and Eastern Europe they have well-defined migrations (see: Cramp, Perrins 1993). The number of migrants fluctuates strongly over the years, which is why the policemen are often referred to as the so-called. invasive species. In the North-Ro-West of Russia, three periods of migration mobility are expressed in the annual cycle. Local summer movements of broods together with their parents occur in late June-first half of July. Autumn, the most massive movements begin in September, are most intense in the first decade of October and end by the third decade of November. The overwhelming majority of young individuals participate in them (Rezvy 1976, 1995). Summer movements end at the beginning of the molt

kov, postjuvenile molt is complete). Autumn movement begins at the end of the molt or after its completion. The individual duration of the post-juvenile molt is about 90 days, and the post-nuptial molt is about 100 days (Rezvy 1990). The third period of migratory mobility begins at the end of winter and falls mainly in February and early March (A.B.Bardin, oral communication); therefore, early spring movements of moths are not recorded at ornithological stations. In this regard, they often write that invasions are mass evictions of individuals, without returning them back. However, repeated catches in subsequent years suggest that a part of the falcon that participated in the autumn movements returns back in the spring (ShShöp 1977).

In the winter period, the mugs are sedentary. The population is represented by both local sedentary flocks and flocks that arrived for wintering from other regions. Both those and others from November to February are kept in permanent territories.

I have traced the life of a flock of mugs over the course of two winters. The assessment of the size of the winter area of ​​the flock was carried out by two methods.

Estimated by the convex polygon method. This method is widely used to determine the size of territories and habitats. The area of ​​a convex polygon describing all meeting points is used as an estimate (Bardin 1977). The disadvantage of the method should be considered that the assessment depends only on the most extreme meeting points, where the detection of an individual depends more on chance, and therefore is unstable. The territory of the flock of 9 individuals determined by this method in the winter of 1996/1997 is shown in Figure 1. In this case, the area of ​​the convex polygon is 28.4 hectares.

Estimated by the average distance between meeting points. If we assume that the shape of the site is close to round, then the average distance between all meeting points should estimate half the diameter of an imaginary circle. For the flock in question, we mapped 350 meeting points. The distribution of the distances between them is shown in Figure 2. The average value of the estimated parameter was 304 m. Taking it as an estimate of the radius of an imaginary steep, we find that its area is 29 hectares. Estimates by both methods are very close (28.4 and 29.0 ha). The shape of the distribution of the distances between the meeting points differs from the theoretical one, built on the assumption of a uniform random distribution of points inside an imaginary circle. The pronounced bimodality of the empirical distribution is noteworthy. The presence of the second maximum indicates that the flock of mongrels spends more time on the periphery of the territory than could be expected if it evenly uses the entire area of ​​the territory. Perhaps this is due to the need for regular social interactions with neighboring flocks.

Territory boundaries can also be determined by observing aggressive interactions of neighboring flocks along the periphery of the territory (Nakamura 1969). The first sign of confrontation is an increase

Fig. 1. Territory of a flock of 9 individuals. Winter 1996/1997.

Legend: 1 - the border of the territory, drawn by the convex polygon method, 2 - the places of aggressive collisions with the militia of neighboring flocks.

the frequency of issuing contact sound signals. Birds get excited, fly from place to place, peck twigs. Confrontation often turns into aggression when birds of the same flock head towards neighbors. At the same time, peculiar undulating flights in a straight line are observed, when the monster flies with a vertically raised tail, emitting a characteristic cry. When fighting, the dominant male takes a threat pose, which T. Nakamura (Iakashiga 1972) describes as follows: “Two rival males are at a distance of 30 cm from each other and make attempts to peck each other. feathers are pressed to the body. Sometimes the threat turns into an attack, then one male with an aggressive look takes the place of the rival, and the opponents move up and down around the trunk. The attack can turn into pursuit. In this case, one bird takes off, and the other immediately begins to pursue it The first bird is

is placed on the perch, and the second pursuing it is located in front of or above it. Often the meeting ends with a fierce pecking, and the defending bird can be injured. "Usually, aggression still does not turn into fights, and the flocks, after walking together along the border for some time, scatter in different directions. Due to the low population density of militia in the study area, conflicts between flocks were observed relatively rarely.

There are no estimates of the size of the winter territories of the mugs in our region. According to Yu.A. Dubrovsky (1958), in the TSKhA nature reserve near Moscow, on an area of ​​248 hectares, 2-3 flocks (35-50 individuals) of mongrels wintered annually, but the size of the territories was not determined. In England, the winter areas of flocks in deciduous and mixed forest occupied an average of 25 hectares (Gaston 1973), according to other sources - 25 and 17 hectares in two consecutive winters (Glen, Perrins 1988). In South Primorye, in the Kedrovaya valley on an area of ​​150 hectares, in the winter of 1970/1971, there were 2 flocks of 5 and 14 individuals, and in the winter of 1971/1972 - 2 flocks of 8 and 6 birds (Shibnev 1975). In Japan, the area covered by winter flocks averaged 21 ha (17, 19, 24, 25 and 28 ha) (Nakamura 1969).

The density of the winter population of creepers in the mixed forest of England was 61 individuals / km2 in October and 31 individuals / km2 in March (Gaston 1973), in the mixed forest in Japan - 30-140 individuals / km2 (Nakamura 1967). In the area of ​​our study in the winter of 1996/1997, it was 31 individuals / km2.

Thus, the area of ​​the territory of the winter flock of mongrels is 0.2-0.3 km2 in different regions. In our region, the territory of the monsters is approximately three times the territory of the federations of Parus spp. and the species included in them. As far as we can judge from our observations, the spatial distribution of Aegithalos caudatus is not consistent with the species that are members of federations. Social groups of militiamen, which are believed to be made up of siblings, their parents and, less often, helpers related to them, spend the winter in an area covering the territory of 3-4 federations. Puffs, beetles and pikas often accompany a flock of mongrels while the latter passes through their territory. However, such associations do not exist for a long time, although they are formed from day to day and from the same individuals due to the settled nature of the birds participating in them in the autumn-winter period.

0- 100- 200- 300- 400- 500- 600- 700-100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Distance between meeting points, m

Fig. 2. Distribution of the distance between the meeting points of a flock of mugs. Winter 1996/1997.

Feeding speed and land use

The main part of the daytime (in the middle of winter, 7.0-7.5 h), the mongrels are busy looking for food. According to J. Gibb (1954), in Marley Wood (England), mongrels spend 92% of the daytime feeding in September-January, 96% in February, and 91% in March. During feeding, the birds move in a close flock, constantly echoing with each other. The food is collected mainly on thin twigs. It is generally believed that the moths feed almost exclusively on deciduous trees. However, according to my observations, they willingly feed on the pines. Thus, 231 food locations were distributed as follows: on Pinus sylvestris 85, on Betula spp. 76, on Alnus incana 30, on Populus trémula 8, on Salix spp. 8, on Sorbus aisiraiya 2, among 20 undergrowth, on land 2.

Table 2. Estimates of the speed of foraging movements of blue flocks (km / h)

Life found out that the singer's life was interrupted due to cardiomyopathy. This disease causes acute heart failure.

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Collage © LIFE. Photo © Instagram / annakast, © Instagram / juzeppejostko

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Recall that Anna Castellanos was found dead in her own apartment in St. Petersburg. Recently, the 38-year-old singer complained of back pain and hardly got up.

1.3 Care

A very unassuming plant, you should pay attention only to the frequency of watering and good drainage.

1.4 Substrate

Loves a very porous mineral substrate for cacti and succulents. Avoid using organic materials to form the soil, such as peat or humus.

1.5 Top dressing

During the growing season, the soil for dolichotele is enriched using fertilizers rich in potassium and phosphorus, and with a low nitrogen content.

1.8 Air humidity

In summer, in hot weather, you can spray in the morning so that the water droplets can evaporate during the day. Please note that the direct rays of the sun should not hit the wet stems of the plant. It is a good idea to provide good air movement around the plant, while avoiding cold drafts. Keep dry in winter.

1.9 Soil moisture

Water the dolichotele regularly during the summer, but do not let the water stagnate in the pan. Let the topsoil dry between waterings. In the winter dormant period, reduce watering so that the earthen lump does not dry out.

1.11 Reproduction

Seeds sown in spring. Germination occurs within 7 - 14 days at a temperature of 21 - 27 ° C. Cover the crops with a plastic cap or glass to maintain moisture and gradually increase the ventilation time. Place the seed pots in partial shade. Cuttings in the spring-summer period, while the cut must be dried for several days.

1.12 Pests and diseases

The root system can rot when waterlogged, in addition, the stems of the plant can become swollen.

Occasionally, red putin mites, mealybugs, thrips and aphids appear.

Ⓘ Long-tailed tits

A characteristic feature of these birds is a tail of medium to long length. Spherical nests weave in the trees. They feed mainly on mixed food, including insects.

1. Classification

The family includes 4 genera with 13 species:

  • Aegithalos niveogularis Gould, 1855
  • Aegithalos glaucogularis Gould, 1855
  • Aegithalos caudatus Linnaeus, 1758 - Long-tailed tit
  • Genus Aegithalos Hermann, 1804 - Long-tailed Tits, or Opolovniki
  • Aegithalos sharpei Rippon, 1904
  • Aegithalos leucogenys F. Moore, 1854 - Black-throated long-tailed tit
  • Aegithalos bonvaloti Oustalet, 1892
  • Aegithalos concinnus Gould, 1855 - Red-headed long-tailed tit
  • Aegithalos iouschistos Blyth, 1845 - Rust-faced long-tailed tit
  • Aegithalos fuliginosus J. Verreaux, 1869 - Gray-headed long-tailed tit
  • Leptopoecile sophiae Severtsov, 1873 - Painted titmouse, or ordinary painted titmouse
  • Leptopoecile elegans Przewalski, 1887 - Painted Tufted Titmouse
  • Genus Leptopoecile Severtsov, 1873 - Painted titmouse, formerly referred to Sylviidae
  • Genus Psaltria Temminck, 1836 - Dwarf Psalms
  • Psaltria exilis Temminck, 1836 - Psalt dwarf
  • Psaltriparus minimus J. K. Townsend, 1837 - Black-capped shrub tit
  • Genus Psaltriparus Bonaparte, 1850 - Shrub tits

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