Bird Families

Spectacled Globe / Plegadis chihi


Latin namePlegadis falcinellus
English nameGlossy ibis
SquadStork or ankle
Body length, cm48-66
Wingspan, cm80-105
Body weight, kg0,4-1,0
FeaturesThe color of the plumage is dark brown, the shape of the beak is curved downward, like a curlew
Number60-100 thousand individuals
Conservation statusLeast Concern (abbreviated)
HabitatThe loaf is common in wetlands, including swamps, estuaries, coastal bays and flooded fields.
AdditionallyThe ibex lives for about 26 years.
  • 1 Description
    • 1.1 Number
    • 1.2 Structure and dimensions
  • 2 Habitat
    • 2.1 Area
  • 3 Nutrition
  • 4 Reproduction
  • 5 Chicks
  • 6 Enemies
  • 7 Wintering
  • 8 Migration
  • 9 Loaf in the Red Book
  • 10 Interesting Facts


Ibis are a group of nearly 30 species of wading birds found all over the world. The cultural significance of the species can be traced back to ancient Egypt. The ibis was painted in hieroglyphs that personified God.

The ibis bird is the most widespread type of ibis in the world. It is found across the globe and is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as the species of Least Concern.

The loaf is a long-legged wading bird of medium size, dark brown in color with a long curved beak. Adults have two fine lines of a pale bluish tinge on the face, which are located above and below the eyes. Under good lighting conditions, iridescent purple, red and maroon tints are visible on the bird's body.


The world population of the species is approximately 60,000-100,000 representatives. In Europe, according to estimates made in the early 90s of the XX century, about 20-22 thousand pairs nested, and by the beginning of the XXI century the number of birds had decreased to 15-20 thousand pairs.

Structure and dimensions

Loafs - Plegadis falcinellus - are smaller than other ibises. The legs, feet and eyes are brown, the head is dark with white spots and veins in birds that do not breed. The beak of the species is olive brown, the face is bare, blue-gray. In non-breeding birds, the wings have an iridescent blue-green sheen, and the front part of the body and neck are dark gray.

The description of the ibex bird says that breeding males and females have dark red-brown necks, breasts and lower bodies. There is a white rim on the face. The species has poorly expressed sexual dimorphism: the female and the male are similar. The only thing is that the boy has a longer beak.

Juveniles are duller in color, with a dark chest, belly and less curved beak. The head and neck are mottled white.

The body length of the species is 48–66 cm, on average about 59.4 cm, the wingspan is 80–105 cm. The length of the beak is 9.7–14.4 cm, each wing is 24.8–30.6 cm, and the tail is - 9-11.2 cm, legs - 6.8-11.3 cm. The mass of the ibex varies from 485 to 970 g.


Many people are interested in where the ibex lives?

The preferred habitat for birds is freshwater or brackish wetlands with dense stands of growing vegetation such as reeds, papyrus, reeds, and low trees or shrubs.

Loafs are found in coastal areas and in open pastures. According to scientific research, most of the individuals in New Zealand have been seen in wet pastures, the outskirts of freshwater lakes and river estuaries.


The loaf is common in the warmest temperate and tropical regions of the world. This includes most of southern Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, as well as the Atlantic, Caribbean, North and South America.


The Globe bird feeds in flocks, which, as a rule, are small. Individuals are omnivorous. This means that they eat both plants and other animals. The birds forage for food using a long, curved beak. The diet of feathered representatives includes water beetles, dragonflies, flies, worms, leeches, mussels, mollusks, frogs, small snakes, fish and seeds.


The breeding season for the ibex starts in April or May and ends at the end of August. The birds nest in colonies, which are often quite large and include other bird species.

The ibis nest is located in bushes or in low trees above water, land or directly on the ground. The nest is a bulky platform of sticks and marsh plants with a shallow depression in the center. It is built by both representatives of the pair.

The female lays 3-4 eggs, sometimes 1-5, pale blue or green. Both parents hatch eggs, but the girl takes longer: all night and part of the day. The incubation period lasts about 21 days. Both parents feed their offspring by regurgitating food from their mouths.


At the age of 2-3 weeks, the young already walk near the nest. Chicks remain in or close to the nest for four to five weeks and are fed by both parents. The first attempt to take off occurs after the cubs reach 4-5 weeks. Later, they feed with their parents during the day and spend the night with them late at night, settling in trees with other species of ibis, spoonbills and herons.


The natural enemies of the Globe include birds of prey, alligators and owls. They hunt eggs and cubs of the species.


The main part of the Eurasian population flies to winter through Greece to East Africa. The smallest part flies through Italy and France, trying to get to the territory of North and West Africa.

Azerbaijani residents also fly to East Africa.

The species rarely stays for the winter in the subtropical regions of southern Europe, as well as in Azerbaijan.


The species is referred to as "weather immigrants". This means that the period of return of the feathered representative from wintering sites depends on the weather conditions in the nesting sites. For example, in Eurasia, in different years, the species returned from early spring to early summer. Also, the arrival of individual flocks of birds does not occur at the same time.

The feathered representative prefers to migrate in the early morning hours.

Loaf in the Red Book

The loaf is listed in the Red Books of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan.

The bird is found all over the world. In North America, the population increased by about 4.30% per year between 1966 and 2015, indicating a nearly eightfold increase in numbers over that period.

The main reason for the decline in the number of the species is the destruction of nesting sites. The increase in the level of fisheries, as well as the sowing of rice, led to a decrease in nesting biots and birds leaving their nests. Setting fire to reeds, in which feathered representatives often lay eggs, has a particular effect.

Other causes of death of the ibex include fluctuations in water levels, predation, collision with power lines.

Interesting Facts

  • Loafs often nest in colonies among other species of ibis, herons or spoonbills. Colonial settlements have the advantage of having extra sets of eyes that watch out for predators.
  • The oldest recorded member of the species was at least 21 years old and lived in Virginia between 1971 and 1992.
  • The sounds made by this rather quiet type of bird include wheezing and grunting, including a "grrr" cry when mating.
  • It is believed that the American representatives of the ibex arrived from Africa in the 19th century and spread north across the Caribbean.
  • Unlike herons, these birds fly with elongated necks.
  • The Agreement on the Conservation of Migratory Waterfowl of Africa applies to the ibis.
  • They are social animals. They feed, rest and nest in close colonies, in which the nests are located at a distance of no more than 60 cm from each other.
  • Couples defend their nest territory by attacking other ibises and herons that get too close. But otherwise, ibex are rarely aggressive.
  • During mating games, birds bow and clean each other, and also touch with their beaks, cooing. This behavior is called alloprinting.
  • In flight, sati ibis are similar to the Balkans, which they are often mistaken for from a distance.
  • Foraging individuals avoid deep water.
  • The Gloaf bird sheds 2 times a year. The first time is at the end of summer and at the beginning of autumn, when the post-nuptial period begins and the bird fills in a winter outfit. The second time is from late autumn to May, when a partial premarital molt occurs.


The loaf (Plegadis falcinellus) is a bird of the stork order, the ibis family. It is included in the Red Data Book as a population that is in a state of near extinction.