Common petrel - Puffinus puffinus (Brunnich, 1764)
Common Shearwater, Manx Shearwater.
S and n. (lat.): Procellaria puffinus Briinnich.
S and n. (Russian): northern petrel, small petrel.
Small, white-bellied petrel with a dark top with a wingspan of about 75-85 cm. The flight is fast, maneuverable, but less easy than that of larger petrels. Usually flies low over water. During flight, there are short periods of soaring with quick flapping of the wings while climbing on low turns. Easy to land on water and take off. Dives well and willingly. When thrown into the water from the summer, it seems to continue flying over the water, working with its wings. In feeding areas, it often lands on the water, then takes off again.
Coloring. There are no age, sex and seasonal differences in color: the upper body from the forehead to the end of the tail is black, the lower side of the body is white, the sides of the chest are variegated, the undertail is speckled with brown-black, the wings are black above, the underside of the wings is white with a dark border along their edges.
The beak is thin, black above and at the end, the sides and base are bluish-gray (legs are mostly pale-flesh-colored with a black outer side. Nesting plumage, like in adult birds. The first chick plumage is from brown to gray-brown, lighter on throat and upper part of the breast The second chick plumage is generally the same, but somewhat darker.
One full molt per year. The change of plumage on the body begins during the breeding season, apparently in June-July in immature birds and in August in breeding birds.
Nesting area. The Atlantic petrel breeds on many islands from Westmann Island off Iceland to the Azores, Madeira and Salvages. Breeds in the Pacific Ocean on the Hawaiian Islands and near the California Peninsula [Palmer, 1962, Murphy, 1967, Cramp et al., 1974].
The subspecies P. puffinus yelkouan nests in Corsica, Sardinia, on the Rio Islands off the southern coast of France, on islands in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In the past, apparently, it nested in small numbers in the southwestern part of the Black Sea.
One of the permanent areas of mass migrations of this petrel is the Black Sea. Here he meets all year round. Previously, it was believed that in spring the common petrel leaves the Black Sea.
Part of the common petrel migrating to the northern shores of the Black Sea enters the Sea of Azov, where it is common in the autumn months. In the winter months, large concentrations of petrels, in particular, are kept off the southern coast of Crimea and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus (Salnikov, 1957).
Gravitates towards the seas, and in the oceans, the bulk of individuals of all subspecies adhere to the outskirts. Even the transequatorial northern subspecies is kept mainly no further than several tens or several hundred kilometers from the coasts.
The common petrel is a very numerous species. The number of Pacific subspecies is much lower than the Atlantic ones.
Ripening later. Some individuals become sexually mature at the age of 3-4, but mainly at 5-6 years. Monogs. Pairs are constant and rarely change during the life of partners. Sexually mature birds appear on the islands where the colonies are located in February-March.
Colonies are located in places with both flat and steep relief, but in all cases where there is a sod layer in which burrows 0.5-1 m long are dug. The nest is located at the end of the burrow and is lined with a small amount of dry grass, moss and feathers ... Most individuals return to their colony and even to their old place.
Some individuals also invade other islands within 300 miles of their colony. Egg-laying is preceded by a two-month preparatory period. About 10 days before oviposition, both the female and the male fly into the sea. After returning (both the female and the male return), an egg is immediately laid.
Oviposition begins in the third decade of April and mainly occurs in the first half of May. In general, the laying period is quite extended and lasts until the end of May. One smooth white egg is laid by weight about 15% of the female's weight. In very rare cases, if the clutch is lost, the female can lay a second egg.
The average size of the eggs is 60.3X41.4 mm, the shape is elliptical, oblong. After laying the egg, the female immediately flies into the sea, yielding the nest to the male. The change of partners during incubation occurs on average after 6 days, although deviations can reach very significant values - from 1 to 26 days. The brooding period averages 51-53 days. Chicks hatch mainly in late June and early July.
Mortality before hatching of chicks is 12%, from hatching to fledglings - 11%, from fledglings to maturity - 70%, adults - 9% (in different years from 5 to 20). On Ram Island in 1972, a breeding bird was encountered, ringed in the same nest, already being sexually mature in 1958.
Daily activity, behavior. During the marine life, the common petrel can be active at any time of the day. At the same time, he often rests on the water in the afternoon. Especially in good weather. During the nesting period, the colonies are nocturnal.
The common petrel is a colonial bird. In the marine period of life, it occurs in a scattered state, as well as in small groups.
Food. The common petrel feeds on small pelagic fish and their juveniles, as well as squid. In the region of Britain, for example, the basis of the diet is sardine, herring, sprat, in the Black Sea - anchovy [Salnikov, 1957, Cramp et al., 1974, and others]. Forages food in various ways. It can dive from a position afloat or from summer, as well as seize prey in the surface layers, momentarily contacting the surface of the water.
Abstract of a scientific article on biological sciences, the author of the scientific work is Sleptsov M.M.
Second edition. First publication: Sleptsov M.M. 1960. Buller's petrel in the waters of the USSR // Ornithology 3: 410-412.
Text of the scientific work on "Buller's petrel Puffinus bulleri in the waters of the USSR"
the Ussuri River, against the village of Sheremetyevsky, by the Cossack S.P. Lukin. The skins are exported to Germany and are sold here at a price of 1 r. 60 K. - 2 rubles 50 k. Give the correct name of the bird. "
This "duck" turned out to be the oceanic cormorant Graculus pelagicus [= Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, 1811], the appearance of which inside the continent has not yet been indicated.
Russian Ornithological Journal 2011, Volume 20, Express Issue 635: 386-389
Buller's petrel Puffinus bulleri in the waters of the USSR
Second edition. First published in 1960 *
Buller's petrel, Puffinus bulleri, is one of the little-studied Pacific petrel species. About half a century passed after its description by Salvin (Salvin 1888), until Falla (Falla 1924, 1934), who visited the breeding area of this species on the Poor Knights Islands (35 ° 30'S, 174 ° 45'E, to east of the northern part of the North Island of New Zealand) did not familiarize zoologists with the main features of the biology of this species during the breeding season, although somewhat earlier Beck (Back 1910) and then Loomis (1918) reported about it during the period of roaming in California waters.
According to available data, the distribution of this species has been more or less satisfactorily studied in the eastern half of the Pacific Ocean, but it remains unclear for the southern half, central and northwestern Pacific.
In 1954, during an expedition to study the biology of seals, Kuroda (1955) who took part in this work reported that he had caught a copy of Buller's petrel in July (240 miles east of Iturup Island), which was previously in the northwestern parts of the Pacific Ocean was not noted.
The poor knowledge of the distribution of this species in the Pacific Ocean, and especially in its northwestern part, is explained, in our opinion, by the insufficient participation of zoologists in marine expeditions, especially in open ocean waters. Development of fishing and hunting in the Far Eastern seas and the northwestern part of the Pacific
* Sleptsov M.M. 1960. Buller's petrel in the waters of the USSR // Ornithology 3: 410-412.
ocean provided Soviet and Japanese zoologists with participation in sea expeditions, which provided new observations on the biology and distribution of tube-nosed and other seabirds. As a result, a number of issues in the biology and distribution of seabirds are better understood than previously known.
During expeditions to study the distribution of cetaceans and their feeding fields in the Far Eastern seas and the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1951, 1952, and 1954, the author conducted side-by-side observations of the biology of seabirds, including Buller's petrel. In the collection of seabirds that we collected in the indicated years, kept in the Zoological Museum of Moscow University, there were 4 specimens of this species.
Young male No. 79142 caught on October 17, 1951 at 44 ° 34'N. and 149 ° 51 'W. and three young females in September 1954: No. 79143 caught on 18 September in the South Kuril Strait (44 ° 00 'N, 145 ° 50' W, 3 miles from Cape Yuzhno-Kurilskiy), No. 79109 and No. 79110 - September 14 at 42 ° 57 'north latitude. and 151 ° 25 'W.
From the data we have collected on the distribution of this species in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, it can be seen that the Buller petrel is quite widespread: from 30 ° 31 'N. and 150 ° 11 'W. to 46 ° 15 'N and 160 ° 15 'W. It was observed not only in the waters near the Kuril Islands, but also in the open parts of the ocean 800-900 miles east of the southern part of the Kuril ridge, Hokkaido and Honshu.
In the territorial waters of the USSR, Buller's petrel was observed near the islands of the Lesser Kuril Ridge, in the South Kuril Strait (Nemuro Sea), 3 miles from Cape Yuzhno-Kurilskiy (Kunashir) and on Iturup Island. In terms of numbers, this species is significantly inferior to the gray Pu // liniB griseus and the slender-billed P. lubnomoshis petrels and stands somewhere near the variegated Caonecotus.
Usually Buller's petrel keeps alone, but if there is a high biomass of forage zooplankton (calanuses and euphausiids) in the surface layers of the ocean, fry of cephalopods and small schooling fish gather in small schools of 2-3 to 20 individuals. We observed it among storm petrels, gray petrels and slender-billed petrels, as well as with a spotted petrel. It differs from other species of petrels in a relatively lower speed of flight and a longer hover above the water surface. Landing on the water is quite typical: the bird strongly takes its neck into the "shoulders" and lifts up a relatively long tail. The mouse-gray color of the top easily distinguishes the bird from other petrels, even at a considerable distance.
A study of the testes and ovaries of the harvested specimens shows that the male should be attributed to the young, hatched in this
breeding season, i.e. in 1951, females are also juveniles, but of a later brood than the male. It is likely that not only young, but also mature individuals ascend to the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. Further observations will show how often this petrel appears in the waters off the Kuril Islands.
According to the main systematic characters, the birds collected in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean are close to those taken in the nesting areas and off the coast of California. The color of the caught birds is not the same. In the male, the top of the head is light brown, above the eye and behind it there is a clear light gray stripe, the back is brownish with light ash stripes along the edges of the feathers. The bottom of the neck, chest and belly are white. In color, the females are closer to the sexually mature individuals described by Buller (1888) and Lumis (1918). All our females have black-brown forehead, top of the head and neck, mouse-gray back and shoulders, wing coverts and secondary flight feathers are dark brown with flight ends from black-brown to black, chest, belly, undertail and bottom the wings are white. The lower ends of the wings are dark gray or brown. The base of the tail is dark mouse, the end is black, the crest and end of the beak are black, the sides are dark blue. The outer edges of the tarsus, the third toe, the membrane connecting the outer and middle fingers are black; the inner side of the tarsus, middle finger, the membrane connecting the middle and first fingers is light meat in color.
The study of the contents of the esophagus and stomachs of 4 specimens showed that in the waters of the Kuril waters, Buller's petrel feeds in summer-autumn time on euphausiids (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa longipes), larvae of cephalopods (Ommatostrephesira sloanei-pacificus), as well as saury cus and deep-sea fish from the Myctophidae family, which they catch in the dark, when these fish float to the surface layers of the ocean.
Buller's petrel nests on small islands near the northern tip of New Zealand. In breeding areas appears in late August and early September. In October, it begins to repair old burrows and tears off new ones, which it arranges in cliffs and slopes facing the ocean, both in the immediate vicinity of the coast and far from it. The length of the burrow is from 95 to 125 cm; the nesting extension is lined with twigs, roots and leaves of trees. Birds often nest in burrows of the tuatara Sphenodon punc-tatus. Oviposition occurs at more or less the same time, in early December. Egg sizes, mm: 63.4-68.0x41.4-43.6. Incubation lasts about a month, chicks hatch at the end of December, and at the end of March they leave their nests and begin to lead an independent way of life. This petrel species has a shorter incubation period.
than others. In the area of nesting and roaming, it feeds on planktonic crustaceans, cephalopods and various fish species.
Beck R.H. 1910. Water birds of the vicinity of Point Pions, California // Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3.
Buller W.L. 1888. A History of the Birds of New Zealand. London. Falla R.A. 1922. Notes on petrels washed Ashore, West coast, Aucland Province // Emu 21.
Falla R.A. 1934. The distribution and feeding habits of petrels in Northern New Zealand // Rev. Anckl. Inst. Museum 1, 5. Kuroda N. 1955. Observations of pelagic birds of the Northerwest Pacific // Condor 57, 5.
Loomis L.M. 1918. A review of the albatrosses, petrels and diving petrels, Proc.
Calif. Acad. Sci. 2, 12. Murphy R.C. 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America. New York, 2. Salvin O. 1888. Critical notes on the Procellariidae // Ibis 6.
Russian Ornithological Journal 2011, Volume 20, Express Issue 635: 389-391
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola in Western Altai
B. V. Shcherbakov1), L. I. Shcherbakova2)
1) Union for the Conservation of Birds of Kazakhstan, Ushanov Avenue, 64, apt. 221, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 492024. Kazakhstan. E-mail: [email protected]
2) East Kazakhstan State University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 492025. Kazakhstan
Received February 16, 2011
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a rare breeding species in the mountain-forested part of Western Altai. Inhabits wetlands of birch-aspen forests in mountain valleys and dark coniferous formations at the foot of ridges at altitudes up to 1200 m above sea level. P.P. Sush -kin (1938) noted that the woodcock in Altai occurs at altitudes up to 600 m above sea level, but also assumed that it will be distributed somewhat wider in the vertical direction than was known. In the neighboring Southern Altai, the woodcock reaches 1100 m above sea level. in the Bukhtarma valley (Starikov 2006) and up to 1450 m - in the Markakol and Kara-Kabinsky depressions (Berezovikov 2006, Berezovikov, Baimukanov 2009).
Petrel nutritional features
The petrel's diet consists of small fish, molluscs, crustaceans. Most of all, the bird loves to feast on herring, sprats, sardines, cuttlefish.
The petrel hunts mainly at night, when its prey floats into the upper layers of the water. At the same time, the bird first carefully looks out for small fish, after which it sharply dives after it into the water. The maximum petrels can dive to 6-8 m. They filter the sea water with their beak, leaving an edible residue.
Since this kind of food extraction requires a lot of effort from the bird, petrels often "cunning" and find their own food, accompanying whales or fishing boats.
Common types of petrels
In the petrel family, two subfamilies are distinguished - Fulmarinae and Puffininae.
Representatives of the first (Fulmarinae) dive little and poorly, forage is obtained in the uppermost layers of water. Their flight is gliding, gliding.
Northern giant petrel
The largest bird in the family. The length of the beak is about 10 cm, the length of the wing is up to 55 cm. The beak is yellowish-pink, with a brown or red end. The plumage color in adults is dark gray, whitish in the chin and head, with white spots on the head, breast and neck. In young animals, feathers are darker and without white spots.
The species is distributed in the south of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian oceans. Breeds on South Georgia Island.
Southern giant petrel
The body length of the bird is about 100 cm, the wingspan is up to 200 cm. The weight is from 2.5 to 5 kg. The beak is yellow with a green tip.
There are two options for the color of the bird - dark and light. The light-colored ones have white plumage, with rare black feathers. The dark ones are gray-brown in color, with a whitish head, neck and chest, decorated with brown spots.
Found in the south of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans. Breeds on islands near Antarctica.
The petrel is medium in size. Its body length is about 45 cm, wingspan is up to 110 cm, weight is 0.5-0.8 kg. The plumage is light silver-gray on the back and white on the abdomen. The upper wings are two-colored: brownish brown with a white stripe in the middle. The beak is dark brown. The legs are blue with black claws.
The habitat of the species includes the coast of Antarctica.
Cape Doves or Cape Petrels
The weight of the bird is from 250 to 300 g, the body length is about 36 cm, the wingspan is up to 90 cm. The wings are wide, the tail is short, rounded. The upper side of the wings is decorated with a black and white pattern with two large white spots. The head, chin, sides of the neck and back are black.
The species is common in the subantarctic zone.
A small bird with a body length of 30 to 40 cm, a wingspan of up to 95 cm, weighing up to 0.5 kg. The plumage is pure white with a small dark spot near the eye. The beak is black. Legs are bluish-gray.
Lives on the coast of Antarctica.
Small species with a wingspan of up to 70 cm. The plumage is gray on the back, head and wings. The top of the head is whitish. The beak is blue. The legs are blue with pink membranes.
The bird is widespread on the subantarctic islands in the area of Cape Horn.
Species of the subfamily Puffininae fly gliding and flapping their wings frequently. These birds dive well under water for prey.
The body length of the bird is up to 50 cm. The beak is of a characteristic hook-shaped shape. The bird is painted completely black.
Found only in New Zealand.
Small or common petrel
Body length from 31 to 36 cm, weight 375-500 g. Wingspan up to 75 cm. The color of the back varies from gray to black, the abdomen is white. The wings are black or grayish at the top, white at the bottom with a black border. The beak is bluish-gray in color, black at the end.
The species breeds in the North Atlantic.
The wingspan is about 1 m. The plumage is dark brown, almost black, the belly is light.
The species is common on the island of Tasmania, off the coast of Australia, in the Pacific islands.
Great speckled petrel
The body length of the bird is up to 51 cm, the wingspan is up to 122 cm. The back is colored dark brown with a white stripe in the back of the head and white feathers on the tail. The tummy is white. A black-brown cap is noticeable on the head. The beak is black.
Lives in the South Atlantic.
The body length is from 40 to 50 cm, the wingspan is about 110 cm. The color of the plumage is dark gray or dark brown, almost black. The underside of the wings is silvery.
The bird nests on the southern islands of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Male and female: the main differences
Sexual dimorphism in petrels is not pronounced. Females are slightly smaller than males in size.