Bird Families

Light-headed Warbler / Phylloscopus coronatus

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Light-headed Warbler - Phylloscopus occipitalis

The top is gray-greenish, the belly is light, the undertail is yellow, the eyebrows are yellowish-white, there is an indistinct light stripe across the wing, the crown is dark with a light greenish longitudinal stripe.

Breeds in thin taiga and mixed forests in the south of the Far East. Nest on the ground, featherless tray lining. The song is a short sonorous "pichyu-pichyu-vin" or "cit-cit-it. Tsiaa", a cry is a sonorous "qi".

Encyclopedia of the Nature of Russia. - M .: ABF. R.L. Boehme, V.L. Dinets, V.E. Flint, A.E. Cherenkov. 1998.

  • Korolkovaya warbler
  • Thick-billed warbler

See what "Light-headed warbler" is in other dictionaries:

light-headed warbler - vakarinė pečialinda statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Phylloscopus occipitalis angl. western crowned leaf warbler vok. Dachskopf Laubsänger, m rus. green-winged warbler, f, light-headed warbler, f pranc. pouillot couronné… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

light-headed warbler - šviesiagalvė pečialinda statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Phylloscopus coronatus angl. eastern crowned leaf warbler vok. Kronenlaubsänger rus. light-headed warbler, f pranc. pouillot de Temminck, m ryšiai: platesnis…… Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Willow warbler - Phylloscopus trochilus see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Warbler Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus The top is brownish or greenish gray, the belly and eyebrow are yellowish white. Legs light, wing without light stripes. Often sings, sitting on the top ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Chiffchaff warbler - Phylloscopus collybitus see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Warbler Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybitus It looks like a willow warbler, but there are no green tones in the plumage, the abdomen is slightly brownish, the legs are almost always dark. The cup is kept in crowns ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Ratchet warbler - Phylloscopus sibilatrix see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Warbler ratchet Phylloscopus sibilatrix The top is yellow-green, the eyebrow, throat, goiter and sides are yellow, the underside of the breast and abdomen are white, the tail and wings are brown with greenish longitudinal ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Talovka warbler - Phylloscopus borealis see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Warbler Phylloscopus borealis Greenish brown dorsally, abdomen and eyebrow yellowish white, on the wing two transverse light stripes (one of them is indistinct). Light legs. ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Warbler-lightning - Phylloscopus inornatus see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Warbler Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus It is very similar to the warbler, but smaller, there is a wide light yellow stripe above the eye. On the wing there are two light transverse stripes ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Warbler -? Warblers Green warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animals Type ... Wikipedia

Green warbler - Phylloscopus trochiloides see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Green warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides It is very similar to the warbler, but there is one light stripe on the wing, the eyebrow is light gray, the legs are dark. Lives in light forests and ... ... Birds of Russia. Directory

Yellow-bellied warbler - Phylloscopus nitidus see also 18.17.2. Genus Warbler Phylloscopus Yellow-bellied warbler Phylloscopus nitidus The top is yellowish green, the belly and eyebrow are yellow. Wing with one light stripe or without stripes. Nests in deciduous forests and juniper forests ... Birds of Russia. Directory

228. Light-headed Warbler - 365 protected birds

228/365. Light-headed warbler Phylloscopus coronatus (Temminck et Schlegel, 1847)
Amur Region Khingansky Nature Reserve, June 2015

Annual marathon "365 reserved birds" dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the protected system of Russia.

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Text of the scientific work on the topic "Foraging behavior of the light-headed warbler Phylloscopus coronatus, the muscovy Parus ater and the white-eyed white-eyed Zosterops erythropleura in Primorye"

Russian Ornithological Journal 1997, Express issue 22: 3-8

Foraging behavior of the light-headed warbler Phylloscopus coronatus, the Muscovy Parus ater, and the white-eyed white-eyed Zosterops erythropleura in Primorye

V. V. Kontorshchikov

State Darwin Museum, st. Vavilova, 57, Moscow, 117292, Russia Received June 23, 1997

The brown-sided white-eyed Zosterops erythropleura has a very limited distribution in eastern Asia. Its ecology has been studied rather poorly. For example, we still have only the most general ideas about the foraging behavior of this species, as well as the Japanese white-eyed Z. japónica, which are the only representatives of the peculiar family Zosteropidae that is not characteristic of the Palaearctic. Understanding the specificity of the methods of collecting forage makes it possible to explain many features of the distribution of species (Vlady-shevsky 1980). Therefore, when studying the feeding behavior of various bird species in the Far East, we paid special attention to the white-eyed shrew, comparing it with the light-headed warbler Phylloscopus coronatus and the Muscovy Parus ater, which are very similar to the white-eye in the manner of food collection.

All these birds in the nesting season feed mainly on the arthropods Arthropoda, looking for them in the crowns of trees and bushes. The foraging behavior of the Muscovy is well studied in other parts of its range (see, for example: Promptov 1956, Partridge 1976, Nor-berg 1979). The light-headed warbler, like the white-eyed warbler, has a relatively small range, and data on its behavior during foraging are also scarce, although the manner in which Phylloscopus warblers collect food is generally quite well known (for example: Gaston 1974, Bursky 1987, Cramp 1992). All three species are among the most common birds in our study area. The light-headed warbler and white-eyed warbler prefer light deciduous forests and young forests, and the white-eyed warbler is especially attracted to floodplains. Moskovka is most often found in mixed forests of various types.

Material and methods

Observations were carried out from May 20 to July 17, 1996 in Pozharsky district in the north of Primorsky Krai, in the vicinity of the village. Hunting (upper reaches of the Bikin, the Svetlovodnaya river, or Ulunga).

The routes passed through two main types of habitats in the study area: secondary mixed forests and small forests on overgrown ha-

Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 1997 Express Issue No. 22 О

ryes, clearings and mowing and along the floodplain coniferous-deciduous forest. Birch Betula spp., Aspen Populus trémula, larch Larix dahurica, elm Ulmus spp., In the second - elm, poplar Populus spp., Ash-tree Fraxinus mandshurica, willows Salix spp., Spruce Picea spp. ... and fir Abies nephrolepis. The routes were laid so that they reflect the approximate ratio of the areas of the two types of stations. The territory covered by the routes was approximately 60 km2.

Observations were carried out for each individual encountered. Only the first foraging intake seen was recorded (Hejl et al. 1990). The techniques by which the bird was spotted were not taken into account. When a pair or flock of birds met, the reception was recorded only for the first individual seen, in order to ensure the mutual independence of the sample elements. Seven main types of foraging techniques were identified (according to: Remsen, Robinson 1990): 1) pecking - the bird pecks (picks out, probes) an object while sitting on the substrate, 2) suspension (the bird pecks, picks out, probes, hanging with its legs on perched) tail down, 3) hanging with the head down, 4) hanging with the back down, 5) hanging sideways down, 6) throwing into the air - the bird leaves the support, taking off or jumping to grab an object in the air or on a substrate, 7) hovering - the bird hovers in the air with its wings in one place in front of the substrate. All these techniques are highlighted as methods of taking prey, but it must be taken into account that some of the suspensions and hoverings registered by us could have been made in order to look out for prey, and it can be very difficult to visually distinguish this. When "pecking" and "hanging" the bird, without changing its position, can: 1) make a single peck, taking one food object from the substrate, 2) make several pecks, collecting objects from one place, 3) make extracting or probing movements with its beak by pulling objects out of cover or lifting them from the substrate.

When registering the reception, we also noted: the type of perch, with or on which it was performed (thin shoots with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm, thick shoots with a diameter of more than 1.5 cm and a trunk), a substrate from or from which the bird got a food item (leaves, flowers, needles , non-leafy shoots, folded leaves, etc.), the type of plant, the height above the ground of the feeding area and, if possible, the type of prey. The number of registrations for each characteristic is shown in the table (“). To compare the shares, the Fisher's method was used, to compare the mean values, the Student's t test (Plokhinsky 1967).

The share of observations made in the floodplain forest is 24% for the light-headed warbler, 10% for the Muscovy, and 52% for the white-eyed warbler. Each registration of foraging behavior was accompanied by a description of the biotope. The proportion that each species of tree and shrub layers occupied in the total foliage volume was assessed visually. All observations were carried out at an air temperature of 10-25 ° С. The behavior of only adults was recorded in the period from the beginning of pair formation and nesting to the end of feeding fledglings and the beginning of post-nesting migrations. The sex ratio in all samples does not differ significantly and is slightly biased towards more prominent males.

Results and discussion

The light-headed warbler, when obtaining food, much more often than the muscovy and white-eyed, uses throws into the air and hovers, less often - pecking, and practically does not use hanging (see.

table). The white-eye is distinguished by the fact that almost all food objects reach (or look out for) without using the wings, often while hanging up. Muscovy in this respect somewhat resembles the white-eyed, but often uses various types of hovering for prey or looking out for arthropods. At the same time, the suspension technique of these birds is noticeably different: the Muscovy is often hung down with its tail, and the white-eyed - upside down.

The light-headed warbler usually simply picks up prey from the surface of the substrate. White-eyed and Muscovy often pick out (probe) the substrate, and this behavior is especially typical for the latter species (see table). In addition, the Muscovy often, when retrieving and butchering prey, presses food objects or parts of the substrate with them with its paws to the branch. During the entire time, we only twice observed how the white-eyed beak pulled up the leaf (once folded, i.e. with the clutch of an insect) and, apparently, pressing it to the branch with its paw, picked it out. The light-headed warbler has never used its legs for pressing objects.

According to our observations, the light-headed warbler and Muscovy rarely use steps when moving, but more often they jump or fly over. At the same time, along with jumps and flights, real climbing (steps), when the bird alternately rearranges its legs, is very characteristic for the white-eyed. Once we saw a white-eyed woman hanging upside down on one leg on a branch for about 1 second.

It is interesting that the white-eye, collecting food, more often than other species moves along thin shoots (table), from which it can be assumed that it also feeds more often in the peripheral parts of the crowns. This is probably due to its ability to climb the branches, and not just jump, the first method of movement is obviously more convenient when moving along thin shoots. On the periphery of the crowns, the density of foliage is higher and, apparently, the density of arthropods is higher. If the white-eyed warbler reaches this zone with the help of climbing, often hanging, then the light-headed warbler - with the help of throws and hangs. Moskovka occupies an intermediate position.

The use of different tree species in foraging for the light-headed warbler and the white-eyed warbler is generally similar (table). Muscovy prefers to feed on conifers, while the other two species practically do not use them during feeding. Apparently, the Muscovy is selective in relation to conifers: the share of recorded techniques for this species was 41% (for the light-headed warbler, 3%, for the white-eyed warbler, 2%), while in feeding stations these breeds accounted for about 13% on average. the volume of crowns. We did not see birds feeding in the grass layer.

Characteristics of foraging behavior of the light-headed warbler (P), the muscovy (M), and the white-eyed warbler (B).

Explanations in the text

Characteristics _Bird species_Differences between

forage behavior P M B P-M P-B M-E

Feeding methods,% n = 96 l = 49 l = 66

Squeezing 29.2 47.0 69.7 * *** *

Hanging tail down 0 16.3 1.5 ** **

Hanging head down 0 2.0 12.0 *** *

Hanging back down 1.0 12.2 7.6 ** *

Hanging sideways down 1.0 2.0 7.6 *

Throw in the air 37.5 2.0 1.5 *** ***

Freeze 31.3 18.4 0 ***

Beak movement types,% L = 29 L = 39 L = 64

Single dive 86.2 53.8 81.3 ** **

Several pecks in one place 13.8 2.6 6.1

Gouging, probing 0 43.6 12.6 *** ** ***

Additives,% L = 93 L = 49 L = 64

Thin shoots 86.0 89.8 98.4 ** *

Thick shoots 14.0 8.2 1.6 **

Substrate,% L = 66 L = 46 L = 52

Leaves 77.3 41.3 78.9 *** ***

Non-leafy shoots 15.1 15.2 9.6

Folded leaves 0 4.3 3.8 * *

Dry leaves 0 2.2 0

Clutches of pennies 0 0 1.9

Lichen 0 4.3 0 * *

Cobweb 3.0 0 1.9

Wood species,% L = 96 L = 49 L = 66

Ilm 17.7 14.4 13.6

Poplar, aspen, ash 16.6 12.1 22.7

Birch 32.3 20.4 24.2

Spruce, fir, larch 1.0 40.9 0 *** ***

Undergrowth 20.9 8.1 30.3 * "" s

Dry trees and shrubs 0 2.0 0

Feeding height, m ​​8.3 10.4 9.7 *

Number of harvested caterpillars,% of the total - 9.4 10.2 9.1

la observed techniques

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Talovka warbler (Phylloscopus borealis)

Appearance: The upper side is greenish-brown, on the wing there are two transverse light stripes, one of which is indistinct, above the eye is a yellowish-white eyebrow, the bottom is off-white with a yellowish tinge on the chest.
The size: Less sparrow.

Features: Talovka differs from other warblers in the field in its voice. In appearance, at a distance, it is practically indistinguishable from a green warbler. Somewhat larger than her, and on the wing there are two light stripes.

Habits: She is very mobile. It stays alone or in pairs in the crowns of trees or in the thick of bushes.
Nature of stay: Migrant.

Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed forests, thickets of bushes.
Location of the socket and its description: On the ground, rarely on a stump or on the trunk of a fallen tree.
Egg laying time: June July
Eggs color and size: White, sometimes with red dots.

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    Warbler Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus)

    Appearance: Very small warbler. The upper body, wings and tail are brownish-green, above the eye, and sometimes in the middle of the head, there are light stripes, across the wing there are two light greenish stripes, the underside of the body is whitish.
    The size: Much less sparrow.

    Features: The boletus differs from the chiffchaff with a greenish uppertail and stripes on the head, from other chiffchaffs - in a smaller size.

    Habits: Zarnichka is very mobile. It is kept alone or in pairs.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

    Breeding area: Various types of forest in the plains and in the mountains.
    Location of the socket and its description: On the ground in the form of a hut.
    Egg laying time: June
    Eggs color and size: White with red dots.

    Korolkovaya warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus)

    Appearance: Very small warbler.The upper body is olive green, the head is brownish, the wings and tail are brown with green longitudinal stripes, there are two wide yellowish stripes across the wing, the eyebrow, the stripe in the middle of the head and the stripe on the upper tail are yellow, the lower body is grayish-white with a yellow bloom on the sides and abdomen.
    The size: Much less sparrow.

    Features: It differs from the garnet by its bright yellow uppertail and stripes on the head.

    Habits: It is kept alone and in pairs.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

    Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed taiga, on the plains and in the mountains.
    Location of the socket and its description: On a tree in the shape of a hut.
    Egg laying time: June July
    Eggs color and size: White with grayish and reddish-brown spots.

    Brown warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus)

    Appearance: The upper body, wings and tail are brownish with a rufous bloom on the loin, the underside is brownish-whitish, the eyebrow is buffy-whitish.
    The size: Less sparrow.

    Features: It differs from other warblers in dark brown color, from thick-billed warblers - in darker color.

    Habits: It stays alone or in pairs on bushes and trees.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

    Breeding area: Forest and shrub belt in the mountains.
    Location of the socket and its description: On the ground, bush or tree low above the ground. In the form of a hut.
    Egg laying time: May June
    Eggs color and size: White.

    Thick-billed warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi)

    Appearance: Quite a large chiffchaff. The upper body is olive-brown, the uppertail is yellowish-olive, the wings and tail are brown with longitudinal light edges on the feathers, the lower body is whitish, on the sides and undertail there is an olive-buffy bloom, the eyebrow is light buffy.
    The size: Less sparrow.

    Features: It differs from a brown warbler in a lighter color and a yellowish-olive uppertail.

    Habits: Secretive bird. It usually keeps in the undergrowth, at the base of bushes and in the grass. The singing male sits down in the upper part of the crown, raises its beak upward, inflates its throat, stretches out on its legs and flutters its wings.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

    Breeding area: Light mixed and deciduous forests.
    Location of the socket and its description: Low above the ground or in the grass. Spherical, slightly flattened.
    Egg laying time: June July
    Eggs color and size: White with reddish spots.

    Light-headed warbler (Phylloscopus coronatus)

    Appearance: The upper body is grayish-greenish, the underparts are whitish, the undertail is yellow, the eyebrow is yellowish-white, there are two light stripes across the wing, and there is a light greenish stripe in the middle of the head.
    The size: Less sparrow.

    Features: It differs from other warblers in a light stripe on the head. Does not occur with greenwing.

    Habits: It stays alone and in pairs in the crown of a tree.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

    Breeding area: Coniferous and mixed taiga, the lightest areas.
    Location of the socket and its description: Among the lower creeping branches of trees or on the slopes.
    Egg laying time: May June
    Eggs color and size: White.

    Pale-footed warbler (Phylloscopus tenellipes)

    Appearance: Wings, tail and upper body are brownish with a more reddish uppertail, on the wing there are two light transverse stripes, the eyebrow is yellowish-white, the lower body is whitish with yellow patches. Legs are grayish-yellow-green.
    The size: Less sparrow.

    Features: It differs from other warblers in nature in song, close - in very light legs.

    Habits: It is kept alone and in pairs.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

    Breeding area: Broad-leaved forests and thickets along river banks.

    Indian warbler (Phylloscopus griseolus)

    Appearance: Small warbler. The upper body, wings, tail, throat, chest and sides are grayish-brown, the abdomen is yellowish, the eyebrow is bright yellow.
    The size: Less sparrow.

    Features: It differs from other warblers by a bright yellow eyebrow on a dark head.

    Habits: It keeps alone, in pairs and groups, mainly on stones.
    Nature of stay: Migrant.

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