Bird Families

AFROAVES III

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For me personally, this is something magical. And the feeling as if the soul is being pulled out of the body. I don't understand why some people refuse to be intimate with their spouses. Sex is 80% of harmony in the family.

5 4 Good answer

1 2 Good answer

I think, what does the cycle have to do with the mood, if she really wants to, then she will end as she wants.

What happens when you have sex? Hormones - oxytocin and dopamine - are released into the bloodstream. At their expense, the achievement of a feeling that can be called "happiness" is realized. It allows a person to feel at the top of Olympus.

2 Good answer

4 Good answer

2 6 8 Good answer

Oooh about the bath straight to the point.

With the feelings that a man experiences.

Not so long ago, studies were carried out with the participation of psychologists, physiologists and other doctors, in which men and women were asked to describe their general sensations during orgasm, and the above-named doctors were supposed to understand the gender of the respondent from the answers. So, it turned out to be almost impossible to do this, the answers were so similar.

9 5 Good answer

What kind of research? Link, plz.

The question is not only about the final result, but also about the sensations received in the process.

Trogoniformes, Bucerotiformes & Coraciiformes

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Accipitrimorphae

  • Cathartidae: New World Vultures
  • Sagittariidae: Secretary-bird
  • Pandionidae: Osprey
  • Accipitridae: Hawks, Kites, Eagles

Bucerotiformes

  • Upupidae: Hoopoes
  • Phoeniculidae: Woodhoopoes
  • Bucorvidae: Ground Hornbills
  • Bucerotidae: Hornbills

Coraciiformes

  • Meropidae: Bee-eaters
  • Brachypteraciidae: Ground-Rollers
  • Coraciidae: Rollers
  • Todidae: Todies
  • Momotidae: Motmots
  • Alcedinidae: Kingfishers

Piciformes

  • Galbulidae: Jacamars
  • Bucconidae: Puffbirds
  • Megalaimidae: Asian Barbets
  • Lybiidae: African Barbets
  • Capitonidae: American Barbets
  • Semnornithidae: Toucan-barbets
  • Ramphastidae: Toucans
  • Indicatoridae: Honeyguides
  • Picidae: Woodpeckers

Paleognathae

  • Struthioniformes: Ostriches
  • Rheiformes: Rheas
  • Casuariiformes: Cassowaries & Emus
  • Apterygiformes: Kiwis
  • Tinamiformes: Tinamous

Columbimorphae

  • Mesitornithiformes: Mesites
  • Pterocliformes: Sandgrouse
  • Columbiformes: Doves, Pigeons

Otidimorphae

  • Musophagiformes: Turacos
  • Otidiformes: Bustards
  • Cuculiformes: Cuckoos

Strisores

  • Caprimulgiformes: Nightjars
  • Steatornithiformes: Oilbird
  • Nyctibiiformes: Potoos
  • Podargiformes: Frogmouths
  • Apodiformes: Swifts, Hummingbirds

Ardeae

  • Eurypygiformes: Sunbittern, Kagu
  • Phaethontiformes: Tropicbirds
  • Gaviiformes: Loons
  • Sphenisciformes: Penguins
  • Procellariiformes: Seabirds
  • Ciconiiformes: Storks
  • Suliformes: Cormorants
  • Plataleiformes: Ibises
  • Pelecaniformes: Pelicans
  • Ardeiformes: Herons

Afroaves

  • Coliiformes: Mousebirds
  • Cathartiformes: NW Vultures
  • Accipitriformes: Hawks, Eagles
  • Strigiformes: Owls
  • Leptosomiformes: Cuckoo-Roller
  • Trogonidae: Trogons
  • Bucerotiformes: Hornbills, Hoopoe
  • Coraciiformes: Rollers, Kingfishers
  • Piciformes: Woodpeckers

Australaves

  • Cariamiformes: Seriemas
  • Falconiformes: Falcons
  • Psittaciformes: Parrots
  • Passeriformes: Songbirds
    • Acanthisitti
    • Eurylaimides
    • Tyrannida
    • Furnariida
    • Corvida
    • Passerida

7 genera, 44 species HBW-6

Click for Trogonidae tree

The AOU's South American checklist committee had considered making some changes in Trogon species in 2003, partly due to the treatment in Ridgely and Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003). For more information, read the discussion for viridis, violaceus, and melanurus on the SACC site. They found that the relevant data, if it existed, was not collected together in a way that allowed them to judge it properly. The publication of DaCosta and Klicka (2008) has changed the balance of evidence here. Although the SACC had not then acted on it, I changed generic limits accordingly.

The species and species groups affected are White-tailed Trogon (T. viridis), Violaceous Trogon (T. violaceus), Black-tailed Trogon (T. malanurus), and Collared / Orange-bellied Trogon (T. collaris and aurantiiventris). The table below summarizes the splits, including genera. The species affected are maked with an asterisk. The question marks on T. macroura (sometimes called Large-tailed Trogon) and T. melanopterus reflect the possibility of future splits.

The SACC has passed (Apr. 8, 2009) a set of proposals concerning splitting mesurus from melanurus, chionurus from viridis, and caligatus from violaceus... I've updated the table with the SACC English names. The NACC has also tentatively ratifed the relevant portions of these changes. The SACC has now recognized the Amazonian Trogon, Trogon ramonianus, as a separate species (Oct 6, 2010). They also adopted the English name Guianan Trogon for the now monotypic T. violacenous... Note that there are still some unresolved issues concerning the exact distribution of these species.

SpeciesSubspecies
Collared / Orange-bellied Trogon
* Collared Trogon, T. collarisextimus, hoethinus, virginalis,
subtropicalis, exoptatus,
collaris, castaneus
* Orange-bellied Trogon, T. puellapuella, underwoodi,
aurantiiventris, flavidor
Black-tailed Trogon Complex
Lattice-tailed Trogon, T. clathratusclathratus
* Ecuadorian Trogon, T. mesurusmesurus
* Black-tailed Trogon, T. melanurusmacroura ?, eumorphus,
occidentalis, melanurus
Blue-tailed Trogon, T. comptuscomptus
White-tailed Trogon Complex
Black-headed Trogon, T. melanocephalusmelanocephalus
Citreoline Trogon, T. citreoluscitreolus, sumichrasti
* Green-backed Trogon, T. viridisviridis, melanopterus?
* White-tailed Trogon, T. chionuruschionurus
Baird's Trogon, T. bairdiibairdii
Violaceous Trogon Complex
* Gartered Trogon, T. caligatus(sallaei aka braccatus), concinnus,
caligatus
* Amazonian Trogon, T. ramonianusramonianus, crissalis
Surucua Trogon, T. surrucuraaurantius, surrucura
* Guianan Trogon, T. violaceusviolaceus
Blue-crowned Trogon, T. curucuiperuvianus (bolivianus),
curucui, behni

All of these forms are apparently field-identifiable both by plumage and voice (see Hilty, 2003, Howell and Webb, 1995, Ridgely and Gwynne, 1989, Ridgely and Greenfield, 2001, Stiles and Skutch, 1989), although some of the differences have not been clearly documented.

These changes combine the Middle American Collared Trogons with Orange-bellied Trogon [I'd previously tried using Jalapa Trogon (used by Sibley and Monroe, 1990, 1993), but have decided to revert to Orange-bellied]. Note that the scientific name does not match the AOU because they don't include puella in the Orange-bellied Trogon. I do, and it has priority. Thus the range of Orange-bellied extends from Mexico to western Panama. The Collared Trogons of South America and Eastern Panama retain the name Collared Trogon. The Black-tailed Trogons west of the Andes in Ecuador and Peru become Ecuadorian Trogon. The White-tailed Trogon can be found from Panama to W Ecuador. The rest of the White-tailed Trogons are grouped as the Green-backed Trogon, even in Trinidad (the population in southeast Brazil may be split at some point). Gartered Trogon is present from Mexico into S. America west of the Andes, and in the north into western Venezuela. The Amazonian Trogon is in the Amazon Basin. Finally, the Guianan Trogon is present in eastern Venezuela, the Guianas, Trinidad, and northeastern Brazil.

  • Bar-tailed Trogon, Apaloderma vittatum
  • Narina Trogon, Apaloderma narina
  • Bare-cheeked Trogon, Apaloderma aequatoriale
  • Sumatran Trogon, Apalharpactes mackloti
  • Javan Trogon, Apalharpactes reinwardtii
  • Orange-breasted Trogon, Harpactes oreskios
  • Cinnamon-rumped Trogon, Harpactes orrhophaeus
  • Scarlet-rumped Trogon, Harpactes duvaucelii
  • Malabar Trogon, Harpactes fasciatus
  • Diard's Trogon, Harpactes diardii
  • Red-headed Trogon, Harpactes erythrocephalus
  • Ward's Trogon, Harpactes wardi
  • Red-naped Trogon, Harpactes kasumba
  • Philippine Trogon, Harpactes ardens
  • Whitehead's Trogon, Harpactes whiteheadi
  • Eared Quetzal, Euptilotis neoxenus
  • Resplendent Quetzal, Pharomachrus mocinno
  • Crested Quetzal, Pharomachrus antisianus
  • Golden-headed Quetzal, Pharomachrus auriceps
  • White-tipped Quetzal, Pharomachrus fulgidus
  • Pavonine Quetzal, Pharomachrus pavoninus
  • Cuban Trogon, Priotelus temnurus
  • Hispaniolan Trogon, Priotelus roseigaster
  • Black-throated Trogon, Trogon rufus
  • Elegant Trogon, Trogon elegans
  • Mountain Trogon, Trogon mexicanus
  • Masked Trogon, Trogon personatus
  • Collared Trogon, Trogon collaris
  • Orange-bellied Trogon, Trogon puella
  • Lattice-tailed Trogon, Trogon clathratus
  • Ecuadorian Trogon, Trogon mesurus
  • Slaty-tailed Trogon, Trogon massena
  • Blue-tailed Trogon / Choco Trogon, Trogon comptus
  • Black-tailed Trogon, Trogon melanurus
  • Black-headed Trogon, Trogon melanocephalus
  • Citreoline Trogon, Trogon citreolus
  • Green-backed Trogon, Trogon viridis
  • Baird's Trogon, Trogon bairdii
  • White-tailed Trogon, Trogon chionurus
  • Gartered Trogon, Trogon caligatus
  • Amazonian Trogon, Trogon ramonianus
  • Surucua Trogon, Trogon surrucura
  • Guianan Trogon, Trogon violaceus
  • Blue-crowned Trogon, Trogon curucui

1 genus, 4 species HBW-6

  • Eurasian Hoopoe, Upupa epops
  • African Hoopoe, Upupa africana
  • Madagascan Hoopoe, Upupa marginata
  • St. Helena Hoopoe, Upupa antaios

2 genera, 9 species HBW-6

  • Black Scimitarbill, Rhinopomastus aterrimus
  • Common Scimitarbill, Rhinopomastus cyanomelas
  • Abyssinian Scimitarbill, Rhinopomastus minor
  • Forest Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus castaneiceps
  • White-headed Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus bollei
  • Green Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus purpureus
  • Black-billed Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus somaliensis
  • Violet Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus damarensis
  • Grant's Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus granti

1 genus, 2 species Not HBW Family

  • Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill, Bucorvus abyssinicus
  • Southern Ground-Hornbill, Bucorvus leadbeateri

16 genera, 59 species HBW-6

Click for Bucerotidae tree

Hornbill phylogeny follows Gonzalez et al. (2013a). They all analyzed hornbill species using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. At the genus level, their results match Viseshakul et al. (2011), which used only the cytochrome-b gene. Viseshakul et al. found that much of the hornbill diversity is truly ancient. The genera all seem to have existed as separate lineages for over 30 million years. This caused some problems for them fully resolving the hornbill tree. Gonzalez et al. found a somewhat different arrangement with better support. It is possible that consideration of additional genes would lead to some further adjustment. In particular, I have doubts that Berenicornis (White-crowned Hornbill) is correctly placed yet.

I have followed Hübner et al. (2003) and Gonzalez et al. (2013a) in splitting Tockus into the whistlers (Lophoceros) and cluckers (Tockus). Besides the vocal distinctions, the split bewteen these clades is quite deep. Viseshakul et al. (2011) et al. estimate it at around 45 million years. Note the genus name Lophoceros (Ehrenberg 1833) has priority over Rhynchaceros (Gloger 1842) as suggested by both Hübner et al. (2003) and Gonzalez et al. (2013a). (They subsequently corrected this in Gonzalez et al. 2013b.)

There were two surprises at the species level in Gonzalez et al. (2013). The Black Dwarf-Hornbill, Tockus hartlaubi, does not belong in Tockus... Here it has been placed sister to Tropicranus in the monotypic genus Horizonocerus (Oberholser 1899). The Sulawesi Hornbill, Penelopides exarhatus, doesn't belong with Penelopides... Instead, it joins Wrinkled, Walden's, and Writhed Hornbills. Viseshakul et al. (2011) had previously shown they did not belong in Aceros, and I had separated them as Cranobrontes (Riley 1921, type species leucocephalus). But now, since exarhatus has joined them, they must take the name Rhabdotorrhinus (Meyer and Wiglesworth 1898, type exarhatus), which has priority over Cranobrontes.

The genus Aceros has been reduced to a single species. Besides losing 3 species to Rhabdotorrhinus, the other former Aceros hornbill, the Knobbed Hornbill, has been merged into Rhyticeros... It seems to be rather distant from the other Rhyticeros hornbill and could reasonably be put in its own genus, Cranorrhinus (Cabanis and Heine, 1860).

The Red-billed Hornbills are split based on Kemp and Delport (2002) and Delport et al. (2004). Some of the red-billed hornbills were included in Viseshakul et al. (2011), which also supports this treatment.

  • Red-billed Dwarf-Hornbill, Lophoceros camurus
  • Crowned Hornbill, Lophoceros alboterminatus
  • Bradfield's Hornbill, Lophoceros bradfieldi
  • African Pied Hornbill, Lophoceros fasciatus
  • Hemprich's Hornbill, Lophoceros hemprichii
  • African Gray Hornbill, Lophoceros nasutus
  • Pale-billed Hornbill, Lophoceros pallidirostris
  • Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill, Tockus flavirostris
  • Southern Yellow-billed Hornbill, Tockus leucomelas
  • Jackson's Hornbill, Tockus jacksoni
  • Von der Decken's Hornbill, Tockus deckeni
  • Monteiro's Hornbill, Tockus monteiri
  • Damara Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus damarensis
  • Southern Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus rufirostris
  • Northern Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus
  • Western Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus kempi
  • Tanzanian Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus ruahae
  • White-crowned Hornbill, Berenicornis comatus
  • Black Dwarf-Hornbill, Horizocerus hartlaubi
  • White-crested Hornbill, Tropicranus albocristatus
  • Black-casqued Hornbill, Ceratogymna atrata
  • Yellow-casqued Hornbill, Ceratogymna elata
  • Silvery-cheeked Hornbill, Bycanistes brevis
  • Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill, Bycanistes subcylindricus
  • Brown-cheeked Hornbill, Bycanistes cylindricus
  • White-thighed Hornbill, Bycanistes albotibialis
  • Piping Hornbill, Bycanistes fistulator
  • Trumpeter Hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator
  • Helmeted Hornbill, Rhinoplax vigil
  • Rufous Hornbill, Buceros hydrocorax
  • Great Hornbill, Buceros bicornis
  • Rhinoceros Hornbill, Buceros rhinoceros
  • Bushy-crested Hornbill, Anorrhinus galeritus
  • Tickell's Brown-Hornbill, Anorrhinus tickelli
  • Austen's Brown-Hornbill, Anorrhinus austeni
  • Indian Gray-Hornbill, Ocyceros birostris
  • Malabar Gray-Hornbill, Ocyceros griseus
  • Sri Lanka Gray-Hornbill, Ocyceros gingalensis
  • Black Hornbill, Anthracoceros malayanus
  • Sulu Hornbill, Anthracoceros montani
  • Malabar Pied-Hornbill, Anthracoceros coronatus
  • Oriental Pied-Hornbill, Anthracoceros albirostris
  • Palawan Hornbill, Anthracoceros marchei
  • Rufous-necked Hornbill, Aceros nipalensis
  • Knobbed Hornbill, Rhyticeros cassidix
  • Sumba Hornbill, Rhyticeros everetti
  • Wreathed Hornbill, Rhyticeros undulatus
  • Plain-pouched Hornbill, Rhyticeros subruficollis
  • Blyth's Hornbill, Rhyticeros plicatus
  • Narcondam Hornbill, Rhyticeros narcondami
  • Wrinkled Hornbill, Rhabdotorrhinus corrugatus
  • Sulawesi Hornbill, Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus
  • Walden's Hornbill, Rhabdotorrhinus waldeni
  • Writhed Hornbill, Rhabdotorrhinus leucocephalus
  • Visayan Hornbill, Penelopides panini
  • Luzon Hornbill, Penelopides manillae
  • Mindoro Hornbill, Penelopides mindorensis
  • Samar Hornbill, Penelopides samarensis
  • Mindanao Hornbill, Penelopides affinis

3 genera, 27 species HBW-6

The bee-eaters follow Marks et al. (2007).

  • Blue-bearded Bee-eater, Nyctyornis athertoni
    Click for Meropidae tree
  • Red-bearded Bee-eater, Nyctyornis amictus
  • Purple-bearded Bee-eater, Meropogon forsteni
  • Red-throated Bee-eater, Merops bulocki
  • White-fronted Bee-eater, Merops bullockoides
  • Black-headed Bee-eater, Merops breweri
  • Boehm's Bee-eater, Merops boehmi
  • Black Bee-eater, Merops gularis
  • Blue-moustached Bee-eater, Merops mentalis
  • Blue-headed Bee-eater, Merops muelleri
  • Little Bee-eater, Merops pusillus
  • Blue-breasted Bee-eater, Merops variegatus
  • Swallow-tailed Bee-eater, Merops hirundineus
  • Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater, Merops oreobates
  • Somali Bee-eater, Merops revoilii
  • White-throated Bee-eater, Merops albicollis
  • Rosy Bee-eater, Merops malimbicus
  • Northern Carmine Bee-eater, Merops nubicus
  • Southern Carmine Bee-eater, Merops nubicoides
  • Green Bee-eater, Merops orientalis
  • Chestnut-headed Bee-eater, Merops leschenaulti
  • Blue-throated Bee-eater, Merops viridis
  • European Bee-eater, Merops apiaster
  • Rainbow Bee-eater, Merops ornatus
  • Blue-tailed Bee-eater, Merops philippinus
  • Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Merops persicus
  • Olive Bee-eater, Merops superciliosus

4 genera, 5 species HBW-6

Kirchman et al. (2001) discuss the split of Geobiastes from Brachypteracias... However, they do not come to a definitive conclusion regarding how the Ground-Rollers are related.

  • Short-legged Ground-Roller, Brachypteracias leptosomus
  • Scaly Ground-Roller, Geobiastes squamiger
  • Long-tailed Ground-Roller, Uratelornis chimaera
  • Pitta-like Ground-Roller, Atelornis pittoides
  • Rufous-headed Ground-Roller, Atelornis crossleyi

2 genera, 12 species HBW-6

  • Blue-throated Roller, Eurystomus gularis
  • Broad-billed Roller, Eurystomus glaucurus
  • Dollarbird / Oriental Dollarbird, Eurystomus orientalis
  • Purple Roller / Azure Dollarbird, Eurystomus azureus
  • Purple Roller, Coracias naevius
  • Indian Roller, Coracias benghalensis
  • Purple-winged Roller, Coracias temminckii
  • Racket-tailed Roller, Coracias spatulatus
  • Lilac-breasted Roller, Coracias caudatus
  • Abyssinian Roller, Coracias abyssinicus
  • European Roller, Coracias garrulus
  • Blue-bellied Roller, Coracias cyanogaster

1 genus, 5 species HBW-6

The tody sequence is based on Overton and Rhoads (2004). They also considered the todies and motmots sister families, as did Johansson and Ericson (2003). I follow Ericson et al. (2006a) and Hackett et al. (2008), which consider motmots and kingfishers sister families.

  • Cuban Tody, Todus multicolor
  • Narrow-billed Tody, Todus angustirostris
  • Broad-billed Tody, Todus subulatus
  • Jamaican Tody, Todus todus
  • Puerto Rican Tody, Todus mexicanus

6 genera, 15 species HBW-6

The motmot sequence is based on Witt (2004).

The Blue-crowned Motmot complex has been split based on Witt (2004) and Stiles (2009). Witt found that the Andean (Highland) Motmot, Momotus aequatorialis (including chlorolaemus), is not truly part of the Blue-crowned complex, but is sister to the combined Blue-crowned complex plus the Russet-crowned Motmot, Momotus mexicanus.

The Blue-crowned complex proper is split into 6 species based on a combination of Witt (2004) and Stiles (2009). The races are allocated as follows, with approximate species ranges.

NameAssociated SubspeciesRange
Blue-capped Motmot, Momotus coerulicepscoerulicepsNE Mexico: Nuevo Leon & Tamaulipas
Lesson's Motmot, Momotus lessoniigoldmani, exiguus, lessoniiMiddle America: Veracruz to W Panama (Chiriqui)
Amazonian Motmot, Momotus momotamicrostephanus, momota, ignobilis, simplex, cametensis, paraensis, marcgravianus, nattereri, pilcomajensisAmazon Basin
Silver-banded Motmot, Momotus argenticinctusargenticinctusW Ecuador and NW Peru, W of Andes
Trinidad Motmot, Momotus bahamensisbahamensisTrinidad & Tobago
Whooping Motmot, Momotus subrufescenssubrufescens, spatha, osgoodi, conexus*, reconditus*, olivaresi*C&E Panama and NW South America (Chocó, Caribbean slope, Magdalena Valley)
* = There is a case for submerging conexus, reconditus, olivaresi into subrufescens.

All but the Silver-banded Motmot are recognized by Stiles. However, Witt found it to be sister to the Trinidad / Whooping group, which is why I'm treating it as a separate species.

  • Tody Motmot, Hylomanes momotula
  • Turquoise-browed Motmot, Eumomota superciliosa
  • Keel-billed Motmot, Electron carinatum
  • Broad-billed Motmot, Electron platyrhynchum
  • Blue-throated Motmot, Aspatha gularis
  • Rufous Motmot, Baryphthengus martii
  • Rufous-capped Motmot, Baryphthengus ruficapillus
  • Andean Motmot / Highland Motmot, Momotus aequatorialis
  • Russet-crowned Motmot, Momotus mexicanus
  • Blue-capped Motmot, Momotus coeruliceps
  • Lesson's Motmot, Momotus lessonii
  • Amazonian Motmot, Momotus momota
  • Silver-banded Motmot, Momotus argenticinctus
  • Trinidad Motmot, Momotus bahamensis
  • Whooping Motmot, Momotus subrufescens

19 genera, 116 species HBW-6

I've followed the taxonomic recommendations of Moyle et al. (2007) for the river kingfishers (Alcedininae). Two subspecies of the Malachite Kingfisher, Corythornis cristata, are sometimes considered full species. They are the Sao Tome Kingfisher (C. cristata thomensis) and the Principe Kingfisher (C. cristata nais). Recent work by Melo and Fuchs (2008) suggests they should continue to be considered subspecies.

The Oriental Dwarf-Kingfisher is here considered to be two species: Black-backed Kingfisher, Ceyx erithaca, and Rufous-backed Kingfisher, Ceyx rufidorsa (including motleyi). See Lim et al. (2010a) for more.

The Silvery Kingfisher, Ceyx argentatus, has been split into Southern Silvery-Kingfisher, Ceyx argentatus, and Northern Silvery-Kingfisher, Ceyx flumenicola... See Collar (2011) and Andersen et al. (2013).

Based on Andersen et al. (2013), the former Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher has been split into 15 allopatric species. Most (all?) Of these are field identifiable and the genetic distance between most of them is substantial. They are the species starting at Dimorphic Dwarf-Kingfisher, and continuing to the end of Alcedininae.

Andersen et al. (2015a) examined many of the Todiramphus kingfishers. As a result, the Micronesian Kingfisher, Todiramphus cinnamominus, has been split into Rusty-capped Kingfisher, Todiramphus pelewensis, Guam Kingfisher, Todiramphus cinnamominus (including the extinct miyakoensis), and Pohnpei Kingfisher, Todiramphus reichenbachii.

Although data is lacking, the rearrangment increased the doubt about whether the two taxa united as Tuamotu Kingfisher, Todiramphus gambieri, are really conspecific. They have been split into Mangareva Kingfisher, Todiramphus gambieri, and Niau Kingfisher, Todiramphus gertrudae.

The Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris, has been split into Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris, Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer, Melanesian Kingfisher, Todiramphus tristrami, Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla, Torresian Kingfisher, Todiramphus sordidus, and Islet Kingfisher, Todiramphus colonus... See the current IOC for the allocation of subspecies.

I've also resequenced Todiramphus based on Andersen et al. (2015a). Seven taxa were not analyzed. Of them, the positioning of Talaud Kingfisher, Todiramphus enigma, Sombre Kingfisher, Todiramphus funebris, and Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher, Todiramphus australasia, is particularly speculative.

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