Bird Families

Notes on the Feeding Behavior of Crotophaga ani Cuckoos in Venezuela: Attempts at Predation on Small Passerines

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  • In Etruscan mythology, a deity with 4 faces (personification of the four cardinal directions), companion of Tina
  • The medieval capital of Armenia
  • Etruscan god with 4 faces
  • The ancient capital of Armenia, whose name is today a good Armenian brandy
  • Ancient Armenian city in the 5th-16th centuries, on the river. Arpachai (now in Turkey) (city)
  • Ancient Armenian city that became the capital of Armenia under Ashot III the Merciful
  • Ancient Armenian city, 10-11 centuries. capital of the Ani kingdom
  • Brandy from Hakobyan's homeland
  • "Mriy about me" (name of the singer)
  • Lorak
  • Type of cuckoo
  • In the Middle Ages - the capital of Armenia
  • City of 1001 churches
  • "Mriy about me" (name (of the singer)
  • Cognac
  • An ancient city on the territory of today's Turkey
  • Ancient Armenian city
  • In the Middle Ages - the capital of Armenia
  • Kulsans
  • Fortress in Armenia
  • The name of the Ukrainian singer Lorak
  • Medieval fortress in Armenia
  • Bird of the genus cuckoos
  • Capital of Armenia in the Middle Ages
  • Ancient Armenian city in the 5th-16th centuries, on the Arpachai river (now in Turkey)
  • Ancient Armenian city, the capital of the Ani kingdom in the 10-11th centuries
  • Armenian brandy

Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1998

an ancient Armenian city in the 5th-16th centuries, on the river. Arpachai (now in Turkey). Economic, political and cultural center of Dr. Armenia. In the 10-11th centuries. the capital of the Ani kingdom. Archaeological excavations of the late 19 - early. 20th centuries, the remains of monuments of Armenian architecture.

Great Soviet Encyclopedia

castle and fortress of medieval Armenia on the right bank of the river. Akhuryan (Arpachai), in the Kars vilayet in Turkey. In the 5th - 8th centuries. the possession of the princes of the Kamsarakans, and then of the Bagratids, under which A. became the capital of the Ani kingdom (from 961). In the 10th and 13th centuries. A. is the largest economic, political and cultural center of Armenia. In 1045 it was captured by Byzantium, in 1064 by the Seljuks, who severely destroyed it. In 1199, together with part of the North. Armenia became part of the Georgian kingdom. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries. is experiencing a new heyday. In 1236 it was taken by the Mongols, destroyed and from the 14th century. lost its meaning. In the 16th century. A. is referred to as a village. In 1878 it was annexed to Russia, after World War I it went to Turkey. The ruins of Armenia, which was one of the most important centers of Armenian architecture in the 10th and 14th centuries, have survived. Excavations in 1892-1993 and 1904-16 have uncovered the ruins of a palace, hotels, temples and other buildings, and city quarters. Among the valuable monuments are the remains of powerful fortress walls with towers (989), which were repeatedly completed and fortified in the 11-13th centuries, the majestic cathedral (989-1001, a domed 3-nave basilica) and the round tiered church of Gregory (Gagikashen, 1001-19 10), built by the architect Trdat, graceful multi-apse centric tiered churches: Abugamrenz (Gregory, 2nd half of the 10th century), Savior (1036), "Shepherd's" [11th century. (?)], the temple of Hripsime of the Maiden Monastery (13th century), the church of Tigran Onents (1215) of the type of a domed hall with carved ornamentation and frescoes, the church of the Apostles (13th century) with a flat stone mosaic ceiling, the Paron's palace (12-13 cc.), etc. In the Gagikashen church, a unique round statue of King Gagik I was found holding a model of the church (not preserved).

Lit .: Marr N. Ya., Ani. Book history of the city and excavations at the site of the settlement, L. -M., 1934, V. Harutyunyan, City of Ani, Yerevan, 1964.

Wikipedia

Ani:

  • Ani is the oldest settlement on the banks of the Euphrates, one of the pagan centers of Armenia, the capital of Lesser Armenia. Ani was located on the right bank of the Euphrates, and opposite - Kamakh. In Kamakh, there were the ancestral tombs of the Armenian kings from the Arshakid dynasty.
  • Ani is a city on the Akhuryan River, one of the capitals of Ancient Armenia (in 961-1045).
  • Ani is a brand of Armenian cognac produced by YBC.
  • Ani is a feminine name for Armenians and Georgians.
  • Ani is the first letter of the Georgian alphabet.
  • Ani is a station of the South Caucasian Railway.
  • Ani - Crotophaga ani one of the genus species Crotophaga.
  • Ani is a genus of American cuckoos Crotophaga with three types.
  • (791) Ani is an asteroid discovered in 1914.
  • Ani, Maret (born 1982) is an Estonian tennis player.

Ani (,) - the first letter of the Georgian alphabet. In isopsephia, it has the value "1". In words, ani can form letter combinations with any of the 33 letters of the Georgian alphabet, without exception.

Ani Is an American bird of the cuckoo family.

Ani - railway station of the South Caucasian railway. It is located 50 kilometers south of Gyumri. Named after the village of the same name Ani, located to the west of the station

Ani - a ruined medieval Armenian city located in the modern Turkish ooze of Kars, near the border with Armenia.

In the period from 961 to 1045, Ani was the capital of the kingdom of the same name, the borders of which captured a significant part of modern Armenia and the east of Turkey. The city stands on a triangular hill formed by the gorge of the Akhuryan river and the Bostanlar valley, its location served as a natural defense. Ani is called the city of 1001 churches, several trade routes ran through it, and its religious buildings, palaces and fortifications were among the most technically and artistically perfect in the world.

The Arab historian of the 13th century Sibt ibn al-Jawzi reported that before the destruction of the city by the Turks in 1064, the population of the Armenian capital reached people, some of whom were massacred, and those who survived were taken prisoner. In the XII century, Ani was rebuilt by the Armenian princely family of Zakaryan and again became the center of Armenian culture. According to other sources, in the 11th century, at the peak of the city's development, 100-200 thousand people lived in Ani, and the city competed with Constantinople, Baghdad and Damascus. Ani was abandoned after the earthquake of 1319. The Ani Armenians established a number of colonies far beyond the borders of Armenia.

Ani - a genus of birds from the cuckoo family (Cuculidae). Includes three species, for the most part tropical birds of the New World, although the range of two species reaches the territory of the United States. The latest data on the structure of DNA gives reason to place them in the subfamily of larval cuckoos (Crotophaginae).

Unlike some other cuckoos, that ani are not nesting parasites, but communal nesting is typical for them, a bowl-shaped nest is built in several pairs on a tree at a height of 2-6 meters above the ground. Several females immediately lay eggs in a single nest, and then together in turn incubate the eggs and feed the chicks.

Ani are large black birds with a long tail and a strongly furrowed black beak. Their flight is rather weak and unstable, but they run well, and, as a rule, feed on the ground.

These are very social species, they are always found in noisy groups. Ani feed on termites, large insects and even lizards and frogs. The claim that they are capable of removing ticks and other parasites from ruminants is disputed, while there is no doubt that anis follow grazing animals to catch insects scared by them and sometimes eat ticks that have fallen from them, there is no evidence that that they can actively remove ticks directly from the bodies of animals.

Remains of two types of ani have been found in Pleistocene sediments dating between 1.8 million and 10,000 years ago.

Examples of the use of the word ani in the literature.

In addition to grandmother and Ani at the table sat Mrs Jadwiga with Janek, Henrik, Hermann's friend, and another guest, a red-haired Pole officer.

Have Ani I got the impression that above all, higher than the concert itself, he appreciates the Skompsky rehearsal.

A young woman stood on the threshold, seemingly the same age Ani, with big lively eyes, a crooked nose and long curly hair.

One of them, a handsome, black-bearded, but predisposed to be overweight person, was an Armenian named Sargis, who for some reason left the city Ani, probably fleeing from the infidels, and settled in Kiev, where he treated the entire princely family: Yaroslav from insomnia, Svyatoslav from abscesses, Ingigerda from heartache, and Vsevolod from stabbing in his side.

At noon - the Iberian kingdom and the city stands Anifrom where the doctor Sargis came to us.

CHAPTER ONE TWO SECRETS There was no greater sorrow in the world than Ani Sedykh.

Here in the Mediterranean Ani and a conversation with her father so important for her whole life took place.

And suddenly, as if from a raised torch, at Ani her own idea arose.

And three hands joined under a makeshift drawing board: Avakyan's dark hairy hand, a gentle hand Ani and the thin, nervous hand of Andrey Kornev.

You are clear, - Elena Antonovna smiled, admiring the light figure Ani in a wet dress that fits your body - and your actions are not so clear.

Elena Antonovna looked around, looking for her former nurse, but Ani was gone.

At a glance Ani There were enough gray hairs on the control panel to assess the state of complete readiness.

The Arctic Bridge Service received from those under the command Ani Gray-haired specialists own building for its further use for its intended purpose.

But this time a chill of terror swept over me: in my voice Ani the fear sounded.

Vote Ani made me look down, twisting in the powerful paw of the lizard.

Source: library of Maxim Moshkov

Transliteration: ani
It reads backwards as: ina
Ani consists of 3 letters

Text of the scientific work "Notes on the feeding behavior of Crotophaga ani cuckoos in Venezuela: attempts at predation on small passerine birds"

was the second child in the family) in 1924 and lead it. In 1927 he became a member of the Icon Society, which was founded and directed by his younger brother Vladimir (1873-1955). S.P. Ryabushinsky began to collect and exhibit icons while still living in Russia. He even wrote several works on icon painting. Sergei Pavlovich was married to Nadezhda Sergeevna Arbuzova and raised two daughters, Ada and Mika. Sergey Pavlovich died in France in 1936.

Bianki V.V. 2014. Biography of Valentin Lvovich Bianki // Bianki: the history of one Petersburg clan. SPb., 1: 22-120. D.L. Podushkov 2006. Udomlya antiquity. No. 45.

Rakhilin V.K. 2001. Organization of bird ringing in Russia // Ringing and tagging

birds in Russia and neighboring countries 1988-1999 M .: 27-43. Shergalin E.E. 2015. Boris Stepanovich Ryabushinsky (1898-1975) - an outstanding Russian animal painter unknown at home // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 24 (1149): 1907-1918.

Russian Ornithological Journal 2016, Volume 25, Express issue 1251: 595-600

Notes on the Feeding Behavior of Crotophaga ani in Venezuela: Attempts at Predation on Small Passerines

Alexander Gennadievich Rezanov, Andrey Alexandrovich Rezanov. Department of Biology, Ecology and Methods of Teaching Biology, Moscow City Pedagogical University, Institute of Mathematics, Informatics and Natural Sciences, st. Chechulina, 1, Moscow, 119004, Russia. E-mail: [email protected]

Received December 31, 2015

Crotophaga ani is widely distributed from the southern United States (Florida) and Central America, across the Caribbean islands, across the northern half of South America to northern Argentina (Payne 1997, Dunn, Alderfer 2011, Restall et al. 2006). Some taxonomists (Avise et al. 1994), based on modern molecular genetic studies, distinguish a group of species of the genus Crotophaga into an independent family of Crotophagidae.

Ani usually seek out and forage on the ground or in bushy vegetation. The diet of the cuckoo ani includes various invertebrates, as well as small vertebrates - lizards, frogs. When hunting for grasshoppers, ani run fast and make

rapid jumping attacks (Howell, Webb 1995). The strategies for hunting for butterflies concentrating on river banks in Brazil are described: 1) a rapid frontal attack on the flock and 2) careful approach to single insects (Burger and Gochfeld 2001). Cases are known when ani ravaged bird nests, including abducting newly hatched chicks.Sometimes these cuckoos add seeds and berries to their diet (Payne 1997, Sutton et al., 2009, Ffrench 2012). On pasture cuckoos, ani often feed on insects scared by grazing cattle and join the so-called grooming associations (Howell, Webb 1995, Payne 1997, Quinn, Startek-Foote 2000, Dunn, Alderfer 2011, Ridgely et al. 2001, Hilty 2003, Sazima et al. 2012). Of interest is the anthropogenic modification of foraging behavior found in urbanized environments - following the lawn mower operators (Sazima 2008).

In August 2011, we conducted a series of observations of the behavior of ani on the Hato El Cedral ranch and its surroundings (Llanos Orinoco, Apure state) and on Margarita Island in the Por Lamara region (Leeward Islands, southern group archipelago of the Lesser Antilles) in the Caribbean Sea.

Fig. 1. Cuckoo ani Crotophaga at on top of a tree. Margarita Island. August 23, 2011.

According to our observations, ani spend a lot of time sitting on the tops of bushes and trees (Fig. 1, 3). For example, on August 17, 2011, a solitary cuckoo was recorded in the crown of a dry-topped tree in the company of the Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savanna and two Passerine Earthen Doves Columbina passerina. However, at the same time, ani, due to their weak flight, do not hunt for flying insects. We watched ani sitting at the top of a tree, flying over

many dragonflies, but there were no attempts by birds to attack insects. In the morning of the same day, a group of 4 ani settled down on low wooden pillars (supports) of the fence of a dirt road running along an embankment laid through flooded meadows. During the entire observation period, we have never observed cases of hunting ani from perches. This behavior, probably, should be regarded as comfortable - rest and taking "sunbathing", which is noted in most of the sources cited by us.

Fig. 2. Fork-tailed flycatcher Tyrannus savanna (flew off) and Crotophaga ani on a dry-topped tree. Rancho Ato El Sedral. August 17, 2011.

Fig. 3. Crotophaga ani in the bush. Rancho Ato El Sedral. August 19, 2011.

Fig. 4. Ani Crvtophaga at on the fence posts along the dirt road. Rancho Ato El Sedral. August 17, 2011.

Ani are not shy birds. On August 17-18, singles and couples constantly kept on the territory of the ranch, feeding on grassy lawns, as well as in dense ornamental shrubs next to the guest houses. On August 23, on Margarita Island near the Porto Fino hotel, three ani cuckoos kept in the bush on the seashore, and then flew to the exposed littoral at low tide. The birds moved easily, despite their relatively short legs, which were partially submerged in the shaky sand. Possible feed -

the bulk of amphipods remaining in the sand after low tide. In the same littoral, the Caribbean grackles Quscalus lugubris were feeding, in the shallows and shallow waters - the collared plover Charadrius and some kind of sandpiper.

Fig. 5. Crotophaga ani cuckoos feed in the littoral zone. Margarita Island, Caribbean Sea. August 23, 2011.

At the Hato El Sedral ranch (August 18) and in the Portofino hotel park on Margarita Island (August 21), we observed cases of unsuccessful joint hunting of a pair of ani for small passerines. Ani rather purposefully pursued small birds (unfortunately, it was not possible to identify them due to dense foliage), keeping in the thickets of bushes. Possible hunting objects could be Polioptila plumbea, Conirostrum bicolor, Sicalis flaveola, Ammodramus aurifrons, Tachyphonus rufus, Myiornis ecaudatus, Cyanocompsa cyanoides, etc., noted here. The pursuit style was stereotyped: jumping from a branch

per branch in different directions and short flips. In general, all attacks (there were several of them), compared to the attacks of specialized predators, looked sluggish. However, for ani cuckoos, which have a weak flight, this is perhaps the only possible way to catch birds. The attacked birds did not fly out of the bounds of the intertwined crowns of bushes and rather easily escaped the pursuit.

In the literature we reviewed (see above), there are only indications of the predation of ani in relation to small chicks. Considering the considerable distance from each other of the places of our observations (more than 500 km), this feeding method is not local, i.e. does not have any specific geographical confinement, is not a feature of a specific local population of ani. Noteworthy is a similar behavior algorithm demonstrated by ani when hunting small birds.

In the forest belt near the hotel, we met groups of 4 ani: the birds were actively exploring the crowns of acacia trees, descending into the dense bushes. But we no longer observed attempts to chase small birds by them.

Avise J.C, Nelson W.S, Sibley C.G. 1994. Why one-kilobase sequences from mitochondrial

DNA fail to solve the Hoatzin phylogenetic enigma // Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 3, 2: 175-84. Burger J., Gochfeld M. 2001. Smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani) predation on butterflies in Mato Grosso, Brazil: risk decreases with increased group size // Behav. Ecol. and Socio-biol. 49, 6: 482-492

Dunn J.L., Alderfer J. 2011. Field Guide to the Birds of North America. Washington, D.C .: 1-575.

Ffrench R. 2012. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Cornell Univ. Press: 1-407. Hilty S.L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. Princerton Univ. Press: 1-928

Howell S.N.G., Webb S. 1995. A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford Univ. Press: 1-1010. Payne R.B. 1997. Family Cuculidae (cuckoos) // del Hoyo, A. Elliot and J. Sargatal (eds.)

Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouses to cuckoos. Barcelona: 508-607. Quinn J.S., Startek-Foote J. M. 2000. Smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani) // A. Poole, F. Gill

(eds.) The Birds of North America, No. 539. Philadelphia: 1-19. Restall R., Rodner C., Lentino M. 2006. Birds of Northern South America. An identification

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